A giant spleen with multiple cysts: a rare case of isolated splenic hemangiomatosis

Tapan Patel, Shivani Patel

PAMJ. 2021; 39:42. Published 17 May 2021 | doi:10.11604/pamj.2021.39.42.29712

A 63 year old female presented with the complaint of lump in left upper quadrant of abdomen since two years which had gradually increased in size reaching up to umbilicus. It was associated with dull aching abdominal pain. Her vitals and initial laboratory investigations were in normal range. Her family history was insignificant. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) of abdomen revealed a grossly enlarged spleen with parenchyma greatly replaced by cysts of variable sizes, largest one measuring 72mm x 69mm x 69mm. Few cysts had peripheral discontinuous rim like calcifications (A,B). Splenectomy done via subcostal incision revealed a spleen weighing 1800 gram and measuring 28cm x 16cm x 9cm with irregular surface showing numerous cysts filled with serous and serosanguinous fluid (C,D). Normal architecture of spleen was replaced almost completely by cysts filled with proteinaceous fluid containing red blood cells. There was dystrophic calcification in the periphery of the cysts. The endothelial cells were diffusely positive for CD34 and factor VIII, focally positive for CD31 but not for CD8. The diagnosis of splenic hemangiomatosis was made. Splenic hemangiomatosis is extremely rare with unknown incidence and is most frequently seen in cases of diffuse angiomatosis. The imaging characteristics of splenic hemangiomas are non-specific. The differential for a cystic lesion of the spleen includes lymphoma, metastases, abscess, cyst, lymphangioma and hematoma. Due to poor specificity of imaging and the risks associated with percutaneous biopsy of the spleen, splenectomy is performed when definitive characterization of splenic lesions is needed.
Corresponding author
Tapan Patel, Department of General Surgery, Baroda Medical College, Vadodara, India (pateltapan2404@gmail.com)

The Pan African Medical Journal (ISSN: 1937-8688) is a subsidiary of the Pan African Medical Journal. The contents of this journal is intended exclusively for professionals in the medical, paramedical and public health and other health sectors.

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