1. Coombs MD, Dunachie SJ, Brooker S, Haynes J, Church J, Warrell DA. Snake bites in Kenya: a preliminary survey of four areas. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1997; 91(3): 319-321. PubMed | Google Scholar

  2. Kihiko DK. Venomous snake bite injuries at Kitui District hospital. Ann African Surg. 2013; 10(1): 15-20. Google Scholar

  3. Davidson RA. Case of African cobra bite. Br Med J. 1970; 4(5736): 660. PubMed | Google Scholar

  4. Stemmler O. Zur Haltung von Echis carinatus leakeyi Stemmler and Sochurek 1969, der Kenya-Sandrasselotter (Reptilia, Serpentes). Zool Gaerten. 1971; 40(4-5): 200-210. Google Scholar

  5. White J. Clinical toxicology of snakebite in Australia and New Guinea. Handb Clin Toxicol Anim venoms poisons. 1995; 28: 595. Google Scholar

  6. Bio-Ken. Welcome to Bio-Ken. Accessed on 12 March 2018.

  7. Harrison RA, Oluoch GO, Ainsworth S, Alsolaiss J, Bolton F, Arias A-S et al. Preclinical antivenom-efficacy testing reveals potentially disturbing deficiencies of snakebite treatment capability in East Africa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017; 11(10): e0005969. PubMed | Google Scholar

  8. Radio Jambo. 300-500 Patients Hospitalized Monthly Due To Snake Bites In Kenya-Survey. Accessed on 13 March 2018.

  9. The Star. Boy aged 13 dies of snakebite| The Star, Kenya. Accessed on 13 March 2018.

  10. The East African. Chumba, the snake catcher of Nandi-The East African. Accessed on 13 March 2018.

  11. KNA. Magic stone that treats snake bites-Business Today News. Accessed on 13 March 2018.

  12. Robert Amalemba. Shock as family takes snake's "body" to morgue: Kenya-The Standard. Accessed on 13 March 2018.

  13. Wilkister Nyabwa. Alarm as snake population soars in Baringo as anti-venom runs. Accessed on 13 March 2018.

  14. Doreen Wainainah. Ever heard of the big five snake safari-Business Daily. Accessed on 13 March 2018.

  15. Mallow D, Ludwig D, Nilson G (Goran). True vipers: natural history and toxinology of Old World vipers. Krieger. 2003. Google Scholar

  16. Branch B (William R, Branch B (William R). Field guide to snakes and other reptiles of southern Africa. Ralph Curtis Books. 1998. Google Scholar

  17. Snake Type. Black Mamba-Snake Facts and Information. Accessed 14 March 2018.

  18. Kenya Directory. Kabarnet District Hospital. Accessed 30 January 2018.

  19. Kenya Directory. Kakamega Provincial General Hospital (PGH). Accessed 30 January 2018.

  20. Afya360. Kapenguria District Hospital. Accessed on 30 January 2018.

  21. Kenya Directory. Makueni District Hospital. Accessed on 30 January 2018.

  22. Punguyire D, Baiden F, Nyuzaghl J, Hultgren A, Berko Y, Brenner S et al. Presentation, management, and outcome of snake-bite in two districts hospital. Pan African Medical Journal. 2014; 19: 219. Google Scholar

  23. Campbell BT, Corsi JM, Boneti C, Jackson RJ, Smith SD, Kokoska ER. Pediatric snakebites: lessons learned from 114 cases. J Pediatr Surg. 2008; 43(7): 1338-1341. PubMed | Google Scholar

  24. Hon KL, Kwok LW, Leung TF. Snakebites in children in the densely populated city of Hong Kong: a 10-year survey. Acta Paediatr. 2004; 93(2): 270-272. PubMed | Google Scholar

  25. Karunanayake RK, Mohottalage D, Dissanayake R. A study of snake bite among children presenting to a paediatric ward in the main Teaching Hospital of North Central Province of Sri Lanka. BMC Research Notes. 2014; 7:482. Google Scholar

  26. Wasko DK, Sasa M. Food resources influence spatial ecology, habitat selection, and foraging behavior in an ambush-hunting snake (Viperidae: Bothrops asper): an experimental study. Zoology. 2012; 115(3): 179-187. PubMed | Google Scholar

  27. Anjum A, Husain M, Hanif SA, Ali SM, Beg M, Sardha M. Epidemiological Profile of Snake Bite at Tertiary Care Hospital North. J Forensic Res. 2012; 3: 146. Google Scholar

  28. Joe Ombuor. Deadly 'makua' is back with venom; will Makueni County survive: Kenya-The Standard. Accessed 13 March 2018.

  29. Wilberforce Netya. Pupil succumbs to snakebite amid public outcries over human-wildlife conflicts: Kenya-The Standard. Accessed 13 March 2018.


  31. Josepg Kangogo. Baringo father grieves after son, 7, dies from snake bite| The Star, Kenya. Accessed 13 March 2018.

  32. Warrell DA. The Clinical Management of Snake Bites in The Southeast Asian Region. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1999; 30 Suppl 1: 1-5. PubMed | Google Scholar

  33. Kasturiratne A, Wickremasinghe AR, De Silva N, Gunawardena NK, Pathmeswaran A, Premaratna R, et al. The global burden of snakebite: a literature analysis and modelling based on regional estimates of envenoming and deaths. PLoS Med. 2008; 5(11): 1591-1604. PubMed | Google Scholar

  34. Geutjes L. Coping with climate variability in West Pokot, Kenya: The influences of land use on responses to climate variability, by pastoralist and agro-pastoralist communities in arid and semi-arid areas of West Pokot, Kenya. 2015. Google Scholar

  35. Government of Makueni County. Welcome to Makueni County. Accessed on 26 November 2017.

  36. Chew KS, Khor HW, Ahmad R, Hisamuddin N, Abdul N. A five-year retrospective review of snakebite patients admitted to a tertiary university hospital in Malaysia. International Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2011; 4: 41. Google Scholar

  37. Owuor BO, Kisangau DP. Kenyan medicinal plants used as antivenin: a comparison of plant usage. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2006; 2: 7. PubMed | Google Scholar

  38. Ahmed SM, Ahmed M, Nadeem A, Mahajan J, Choudhary A, Pal J. Emergency treatment of a snake bite: Pearls from literature. J Emergencies, Trauma Shock. 2008; 1(2): 97-105. PubMed | Google Scholar

  39. Williams DJ, Jensen SD, Nimorakiotakis B, Müller R, Winkel KD. Antivenom use, premedication and early adverse reactions in the management of snake bites in rural Papua New Guinea. Toxicon. 2007; 49(6): 780-792. PubMed | Google Scholar

  40. Stewart CJ. Snake bite in Australia: first aid and envenomation management. International Emergency Nursing 2003; 11(2): 106-111. Google Scholar

  41. Chippaux JP. Estimate of the burden of snakebites in sub-Saharan Africa: a meta-analytic approach. Toxicon. 2011; 57(4): 586-599. PubMed | Google Scholar