Superbugs-related prolonged admissions in three tertiary hospitals, Kano State, Nigeria
Alkali Bashir, Iliyasu Garba, Adamu Almustapha Aliero, Abdurrazak Kibiya, Muhammad Hassan Abubakar, Ibrahim Ntulume, Faruk Sarkinfada, Agwu Ezera
The Pan African Medical Journal. 2019;32:166. doi:10.11604/pamj.2019.32.166.18481

Innovations in Measles Elimination Innovations in Measles Elimination
"Better health through knowledge sharing and information dissemination "

Research

Superbugs-related prolonged admissions in three tertiary hospitals, Kano State, Nigeria

Cite this: The Pan African Medical Journal. 2019;32:166. doi:10.11604/pamj.2019.32.166.18481

Received: 18/02/2019 - Accepted: 24/03/2019 - Published: 09/04/2019

Key words: Superbugs, prolonged admission, tertiary hospitals, Kano

© Alkali Bashir et al. The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Available online at: http://www.panafrican-med-journal.com/content/article/32/166/full

Corresponding author: Alkali Bashir, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Biomedical Science Kampala International University Bushanyi, Uganda (alkalibashir@kiu.ac.ug)


Superbugs-related prolonged admissions in three tertiary hospitals, Kano State, Nigeria

Alkali Bashir1,2,&, Iliyasu Garba3, Adamu Almustapha Aliero2,4, Abdurrazak Kibiya5, Muhammad Hassan Abubakar6, Ibrahim Ntulume2, Faruk Sarkinfada7,8, Agwu Ezera2,8

 

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Technology Kano State Polytechnic, Nigeria, 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Biomedical Science Kampala International University Bushanyi, Uganda, 3Department of Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Bayero University Kano State, Nigeria, 4Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology Aliero, Kebbi State, Nigeria, 5Department of medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of clinical science, College of Health science, Bayero University Kano, Kano State Nigeria, 6Microbiology Unit, Murtala Muhammed Specialist Hospital, Hospital Management Board, Kano State, Nigeria, 7Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano State, Nigeria, 8Department of Health and Medical Sciences Khawarizimi International College, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

 

 

&Corresponding author
Alkali Bashir, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Biomedical Science Kampala International University Bushanyi, Uganda

 

 

Abstract

Introduction: superbugs are pathogenic micro-organism and especially a bacterium that has developed resistance to the medications normally used against it. As the superbug family increases, the need for appropriate diagnostic, treatment, prevention and control strategies cannot be over emphasized. Therefore, this work determined the distribution of superbug bacteria among patients on prolonged hospital admissions in three tertiary hospitals of Kano state, Nigeria.

 

Methods: a descriptive cross sectional study was undertaken among 401 patients from medical, surgery, orthopedic and burn Centre wards in a three tertiary hospitals in Kano state. A sample collected comprises wound/pus, urine, urine catheter and nasal intubation and were analysed using standard microbiological methods for Acinetobacter spp and other related nosocomial bacterial pathogens. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method.

 

Results: one hundred and thirty eight (138) isolates were recovered, from the studied participants. More than 80% of the nosocomial infections (Nis) were caused by Gram-negative bacteria, predominantly Escherichia coli, Klebseilla spp, Proteus spp, Pseudomona spp and Acinetobacter spp. In-vitro antibiotic susceptibility test revealed that acinetobacter were 100% resistant to amoxicillin, co-trimoxazole, perfloxacin and imipenem.

 

Conclusion: the results of this study reported higher antibiotic resistant among Acinetobacter spp isolated from three studied hospitals. The healthcare managers of these hospitals and ministry health need to take measures against this resistant bacteria (Acinetobacter spp) especially on prescribing antibiotics that showed 100% resistant from these studied hospitals.

 

 

Introduction    Down

Antimicrobial resistant poses one of the most pressing public health threats worldwide [1]. The emergence of resistant strains of hospital pathogens has presented a challenge in the provision of good quality of in-patient care. Inappropriate use of antibiotics in the hospital is largely responsible for this problem [2]. Bacterial infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are a growing threat worldwide [3]. They are major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries including Nigeria. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major problem in both hospital and community acquired infections [4, 5]. Several intrinsic factors such as point mutation, gene amplification and extrinsic factors like horizontal transfer of resistant gene between bacteria within and across species by transposes, integrins or plasmids have been postulated for the development of resistance, which cannot be reduced once developed even by restricting the antibiotic usage. Social factors such as demographic changes, poor hygienic practices and overcrowding have been enumerated for the emergence of AMR [6]. Infections caused by resistant bacteria adversely affect treatment outcomes, costs, disease spread and duration of illnesses, posing a serious challenge to the future chemotherapies [5, 7]. In addition to this, the battle between bacteria and their susceptibility to drugs is yet problematic among public, researchers, clinicians and drug companies who are looking for effective drugs [7]. Global burden of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) is still unknown due the lack of comprehensive data from some part of the world especially African countries including Nigeria [1]. But literature has shown that, the burden is at alarming red. For example, Among Gram negative bacteria E. coli and other unnamed gram negative were reported to have 100% resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanate and chloramphenicol [1]. Nwadike et al [8] reported 100% antibiotics resistant of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from intensive care unit (ICU) of Nigerian tertiary hospitals to ceftriaxone, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ampicillin-sulbactam, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. Resistant of some Gram positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus to ampicillin ranged between 0 to 95.6% and coagulate negative showed 100% resistance to ampicillin in some part of the country. Most of the previous research on nosocomial infection and antimicrobial susceptibility from major tertiary hospital in Kano did not focus much on superbugs-related prolonged admissions despite world health organisation recommendations on frequent research on these organisms [9]. Therefore, this study aimed at determining the superbugs-related prolonged admissions in three tertiary hospitals, Kano state, Nigeria.

 

 

Methods Up    Down

Study area: the study was conducted at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH), Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital (MMSH) and Muhammad Abdullahi Wase Specialist Hospital (MAWSH) Microbiology laboratory of each hospital, Kano state, Nigeria. The duration of the study was 6 months (July to December 2016).

 

Study design: this was a cross sectional descriptive hospital based which involved isolation of bacteria from urine, wound/pus, urine catheter and nasal feed tube from patients who were eighteen years and above of ages and both sexes admitted in all the above Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH), Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital (MMSH) and Muhammad Abdullahi Wase Specialist Hospital (MAWSH). The isolated bacteria were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity testing using different antibiotics discs.

 

Sample collection: samples were collected according to the method described by [10]. A sterile open urine container (20ml) calibrated screw-capped was used to collect the urine; a sterile swab stick was used to collect samples from wound/pus, urine catheters, nasal intubation. All samples was labelled accordingly and then transported to the respective laboratory for further analysis. Samples were collected from patients after obtaining ethical approval from the three hospitals management and verbal informed consent prior to specimen collection from all studied participants. Verbal informed consent was sought from guardians in case of critically ill patient.

 

Isolation and identification of bacterial pathogens: isolation of bacterial agents of urine, wound/pus, urine catheters and nasal tube was done according to the method described by [11, 12]. Four different media were used: 10% blood sheep agar, MacConkey agar and Cysteine Lactose Electron Deficient agar (CLED) and Leeds Acinetobacter media. All the media were prepared according to manufacturer's instructions. The media was sterilized at 121°C for 15 minutes. Ten percent (10%) blood agar was prepared by mixing 10ml fresh sheep blood with 90ml of blood agar base at 45°C. Twenty (20ml) of each medium was dispensed into sterile disposable plastic Petridish and allowed to set. Each sample was aseptically inoculated (in triplicate) into 10% blood sheep agar, MacConkey agar and cysteine lactose electron deficient agar (CLED) and Leeds Acinetobacter media, The plates were incubated aerobically at 37°C for 18-24h. The characteristic bacterial isolates observed on the selective media plates were aseptically sub-cultured onto freshly prepared culture media plates. Identification of bacterial isolates was done on the basis of their cultural and biochemical characteristics as described by Cheesbrough [13]. The identified bacterial isolates were maintained on nutrient agar slants stored at 4°C in refrigerator and subculture periodically.

 

Antibiotic susceptibility study: antibiotic susceptibility was determined using Mueller Hinton (mast group limited). A small inoculum of each pure bacterial isolates was emulsified in 3ml sterile normal saline in a cleaned sterile test tube until it matched with 0.5 McFarland standards. Mueller Hilton agar plates were inoculated using sterile cotton swab in the confluent pattern as in the Kirby-Bauer procedure [14]. Antibiotic discs were placed aseptically on the inoculated plate using sterile forceps. The plates were then incubated for 24h at 37°C. Isolates were considered as sensitive or resistant to an antibiotic according to the diameter of inhibition zone interpretative chart [15]. Antibiotic discs used were: Amoxicillin (AM, 10 µg), Perfloxacin (PEF, 20µg), Ceftriaxone (CTR, 30µg), Ciprofloxacin (CIP, 30µg), Ceftazidime (CAZ, 30 µg), Imipenem (IMP, 10µg), Co-trimoxazole (COT, 30µg), Rocephin (CRO, 10 µg), Augmentin (AMC, 30µg), Tetracycline (T, 30µg). The following standard bacterial isolates: Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213 was used as a reference strains for susceptibility test.

 

Ethical consideration: ethical approvals to carry out the study were obtained from Institutional Review Boards of Kampala International University Western Campus, Health service management board Kano (HMB/GEN/488/VOL.1), Ministry of Health Kano state and AKTH, Nigeria. Written informed consent prepared in local languages (Hausa) was obtained from all participants or guardians in case of patient were critically ill.

 

 

Results Up    Down

Socio-demographic characteristics of the study population: a total of four hundred and one patients participated in the study. The age of the patients ranged from 18 years to 78 years. Majority of the patients (27.8%) were in the age ranged 49-58 years while the 18-28 years of age group constituted the least of age-group (9.2%). There were 200 males and 201 females. Most of the participants were retired (54.9%) while the least were unemployed (3.2%). Most of the participants were married (45.6%) while 1.5% was widows. Out of the 401 studied participants enrolled in this study, 138 (34.42%) bacterial nosocomial pathogens were isolated. Fifty eight (58) bacterial isolates were isolated from AKTH and MMSH each. Twenty two (22) bacterial isolates were obtained from MAWSH. Among the bacterial pathogens isolated, E. coli was the most frequently isolated bacterial nosocomial pathogens from all the studied hospitals (Table 1). The results of antimicrobial resistant patterns of nosocomial bacterial pathogens isolated from Aminu Kano Teaching hospital (AKTH) showed that, E. coli showed higher resistant to co-trimoxazole (94%) and less resistant to Augmentin (11%) among all antibiotics tested. Proteus spp showed higher resistance to amoxicillin (42%) with less resistant to Imipenem (8%) among all antibiotics tested. Streptococcus spp showed 40% resistant to co-trimoxazole, ceftriaxone, rocephin, augmentin, ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin with 0% resistance to tetracycline. Pseudomnas spp showed 100% resistant to amoxicillin with 0% resistant to augmentin and imipenem. Acinetobacter spp were 100% resistant to amoxicillin, co-trimoxazole, perfloxacin and imipenem with 20% resistant to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime. Staphylococcus spp were 75% resistant to co-trimoxazole and perfloxacin with 25% resistant to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime. Klebsiella pneumonie were resistant 100% resistant to tetracycline with 0% resistant to ciprofloxacin (Table 2).

 

The results of antimicrobial sensitivity testing from Muhammad Abdullahi Wuse specialist hospital showed that E. coli showed 80% resistant to co-trimoxazole with 0% resistant to imipenem. Proteus spp showed 100% resistant to tetracycline with 0% resistant to augmentin and imipenem. Streptococcus spp showed 50% resistant to co-trimoxazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, rocephin and ceftriaxone with 0% resistant to amoxicillin, perfloxacin, augmentin and imipenem. Pseudomonas spp were 100% resistant to amoxicillin, tetracycline and ceftazidime with 0% resistant to rocephin. Acinetobacter spp were 100% resistant to amoxicillin, co-trimoxazole and perfloxacin with 33% resistant to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime and cugmentin. Staphylococcus spp were 100% resistant to co-trimoxazole, perfloxacin and augmentin with 33% resistant to ceftazidime and ceftriaxone. Klebsiella pneumonie showed 100% resistant to tetracycline with 0% resistant to Imipenem (Table 3). The results of antimicrobial sensitivity testing of nosocomial bacterial pathogens isolated from Murtala Muhammad specialist hospital, Kano showed that, E. coli was 92% resistant to co-trimoxazole and tetracycline with 8% resistant to ciprofloxacin and imipenem. Proteus spp were 50% resistant to amoxicillin, co-trimoxazole and ceftriaxone with 12% resistant to tetracycline and imipenem. Streptococcus spp were 75% resistant to perfloxacin with 25% resistant to amoxicillin, co-trimoxazole, ceftazidime, augmentin, ceftriaxone and imipenem. Pseudomonas spp were 75% resistant to amoxicillin with 0% resistant to imipenem. Acinetobacter spp were 100% resistant to co-trimoxazole and perfloxacin with 17% resistant to ciprofloxacin and augmentin. Staphylococcus spp had 78% resistant to co-trimoxazole and 22% resistant to perfloxacin, tetracycline and ceftazidime. Klebsiella pneumonie was 80% resistant tetracycline with 10% resistant to amoxicillin (Table 4).

 

 

Discussion Up    Down

More than 80% of the nosocomial infections (NIs) were caused by the Gram-negative bacteria (GNB). Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp, Klebsiella pneumonie and Proteus spp and Acinetobacte spp constituted more than 80% of the isolates obtained from this study. Increasing importance of GNB in NIs has been reported by previous investigators [8, 16, 17]. This observation was consistent with the findings of this study. Increase in drug resistant bacteria in African healthcare centres makes it difficult to healthcare provider to give effective treatment to the hospitalized patients especially immunocompromised patients. There was lack of comprehensive data in most African healthcare centres to ascertain the magnitude of this problem [1]. This study also determined the antibacterial resistant profile of nosocomial bacteria isolated from HCAIs from three hospitals of Kano state, Nigeria. The results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing from all the three studied hospitals showed that Acinetobacter spp were 100% resistant to amoxicillin, co-trimoxazole, perfloxacin antibiotics from AKTHS and MAWSH. Similar result was also obtained from MMSH with exception of amoxicillin which was 66% resistant to Acinetobacter spp. This was in line with finding of Nwadike et al [8] who reported 100% resistant of Acinetobacter spp to amoxicillin-clavulanate and other commonly used antibiotics in a Nigerian tertiary hospital intensive care unit (ICU). Nwadike et al [8] added that, there was an increasing report of Acinetobacter spp resistant to β-lactams, aminoglycoside antibiotics in many healthcare centres within the country which make some of the healthcare centres a reservoir of Acinetobacter spp resistant genes. Odewale et al [18] also reported 100% resistant of ciprofloxacin and amikacin from Acinetobacter spp isolated in Ladoke Akintola University teaching hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria.

The results of this study also found 100% resistant of Acinetobacter spp to Imipenem from AKTH. This was in line with finding of Shahcheraghi et al [19] who reported 100% of Imipenem from Acinetobacter spp from patients at Tehran hospitals, Iran. Other Gram negative bacteria found to be 100% to some of the antibiotics tested from AKTHS and MAWSH were Proteus spp, Pseudomnas spp and Klebsiella pneumonie. The higher resistant of Gram's negative bacteria to antibiotics reported in this could be due to the higher exposure of these bacteria to these antibiotics [8]. Antibiotics susceptibility test results on Gram's positive bacteria isolated from three studied hospital showed that, Streptococcus spp showed 0-40%, 0-50 and 0-70% resistant to antibiotics tested from AKTH, MAWSH and MMSH respectively. This was in line with finding of Barma et al [20], who reported 7-80% of antibiotics resistant among the coagulase negative staphylococci isolated from Intensive Care Units of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria Staphylococcus spp showed 25-75, 33-100 and 22-78% resistant to antibiotics tested from AKTH, MAWSH and MMSH respectively. This was in line with finding of Barma et al [20] who reported 0-100% antibiotics resistant from Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from Intensive Care Units of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

 

 

Conclusion Up    Down

Present study determined the Superbugs-related prolonged admissions in three tertiary hospitals, Kano state, Nigeria. The results showed that, Acinetobacter spp and other related nosocomial bacterial pathogens were 0-100% resistant to the antibiotics tested. There is needs for the managements of the three studied hospitals to take measures especially in antibiotics prescription by reviewing guideline to avoid prescribing antibiotics that showed 100% resistant these bacteria.

What is known about this topic

  • Presence of some nosocomial bacterial pathogens from the three studied hospitals;
  • Antibiotic resistant profile of some nosocomial bacterial pathogens from the three studied hospitals.

What this study adds

  • Presence of Acinetobacter spp associated with other nosocomial bacterial pathogens from the three studied hospitals;
  • Antibiotic resistant profile of Acinetobacter spp associated with bacterial nosocomial pathogens from the three studied hospitals.

 

 

Competing interests Up    Down

The authors declare no competing interests.

 

 

Authors’ contributions Up    Down

Alkali Bashir, Iliyasu Garba, Abdurrazak Kibiya and Muhammad Hassan Abubakar conducted the laboratory work of this study. The first mentioned authors and Adamu Almustapha Aliero, Ibrahim Ntulume, Faruku Sarkinfada and Agwu Ezera contributed equally to its contents apart from laboratory part. All authors read and approved the final version of this manuscript before submission.

 

 

Acknowledgments Up    Down

We would like to thanks the managements of the three studied hospitals for granting us permission to carry out this study. Study participant for participating in this study. Finally the staff of microbiology laboratories for their kind support during this study.

 

 

Tables Up    Down

Table 1: number and percentage of bacterial nosocomial pathogens isolated from the studied participant at three tertiary hospitals in Kano state

Table 2: antimicrobial susceptibility of Acinetobacter spp and other related bacterial nosocomial pathogens isolated from AKTH Hospital

Table 3: antimicrobial susceptibility of Acinetobacter spp and other related bacterial nosocomial pathogens isolated from MAWSH

Table 4: antimicrobial susceptibility of Acinetobacter spp and other related bacterial nosocomial pathogens isolated from MMSH

 

 

References Up    Down

  1. Egwuenu A, Obasanya J, Okeke I, Aboderin O, Olayinka A, Kwange D, Ogunniyi A, Mbadiwe E, Omoniyei L, Omotayo H, Niyang M. Antimicrobial use and resistance in Nigeria: situation analysis and recommendations, 2017. Pan African Medical Journal. 2018; 21.

  2. Netcare. The dangers of the inappropriate use of antibiotics. 2016.

  3. Roca I, Akova M, Baquero F, Carlet J, Cavaleri M, Coenen S, Kahlmeter G. The global threat of antimicrobial resistance: science for intervention. New microbes and new infections. 2015; 6: 22-29. PubMed | Google Scholar

  4. Javeed I, Hafeez, RUBE ENA, Anwar MS. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital in Lahore. Biomedica. 2011; 27(2): 19-23. Google Scholar

  5. Abera B, Kibret M, Mulu W. Knowledge and beliefs on antimicrobial resistance among physicians and nurses in hospitals in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2014; 15(1): 26. PubMed | Google Scholar

  6. Saravanan R, Raveendaran V. Antimicrobial resistance pattern in a tertiary care hospital: an observational study. Journal of basic and clinical pharmacy. 2013; 4(3): 56-63. PubMed | Google Scholar

  7. Mulu W, Kibru G, Beyene G, Damtie M. Postoperative nosocomial infections and antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacteria isolates among patients admitted at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahirdar, Ethiopia. Ethiopian journal of health sciences. 2012; 22(1): 7-18. PubMed | Google Scholar

  8. Nwadike VU, Ojide CK, Kalu EI. Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter infection and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in a nigerian tertiary hospital ICU. African journal of infectious diseases. 2014; 8(1): 14-18. PubMed | Google Scholar

  9. WHO. WHO releases list of world's most dangerous superbugs. 2017. Accessed 5/9/2018.

  10. Ibrahim S, Adam AS, Aliero AA, Umar S. Prevalence and Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Wound and Otitis Media among Patients Attending Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. Microbiology Research Journal International. 2018; 25(2): 1-9. Google Scholar

  11. Ciftci A, Karakece E, Atasoy A, Asik G, Ciftci I. Culture Media for Detection of Acinetobacter baumannii Selective Media for Detection of A baumannii. Journal of Microbiology & Experimentation. 2015; 2(3): 1-4. Google Scholar

  12. Théodora AA, Honoré SB, Franck MA, Aimé AG, Sibylle A, Marcellin AG, Dorothée AKG and Didier P. Prevalence of nosocomial infections and anti-infective therapy in Benin: results of the first nationwide survey in 20 Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control. 2014; 3: 17. PubMed | Google Scholar

  13. Cheesbrough M. District laboratory practice in tropical countries. Cambridge university press. 2006. Google Scholar

  14. Fatemeh H,Youssef R, Behzad H, Atefeh A. Nosocomial infections and antibiotic resistance pattern in open-heart surgery patients at Imam Ali Hospital in Kermanshah, Iran. GMS Hygiene and Infection Control 2017 May 24; 12: Doc07. PubMed

  15. Clinical Laboratory Science Institute. Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically: approved standards. 2012; (5th ed): 43-47.

  16. Kollef MH. The importance of appropriate initial antibiotic therapy for hospital-acquired infections. The American journal of medicine. 2003; 115(7): 582-584. PubMed | Google Scholar

  17. Tigist F, Setegn E, Mulat D, Mengistu E, Wondwossen A, Moges T, Feleke M. Multidrug-resistant bacterial isolates from patients suspected of nosocomial infections at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes. 2018; 11(1): 602. PubMed | Google Scholar

  18. Odewale G, Adefioye OJ, Ojo J, Adewumi FA, & Olowe OA. Multidrug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii in Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology. 2016; 6(3): 238-243. PubMed | Google Scholar

  19. Shahcheraghi F, Abbasalipour M, Feizabadi MM, Ebrahimipour GH, Akbari N. Isolation and genetic characterization of metallo-β-lactamase and carbapenamase producing strains of Acinetobacter baumannii from patients at Tehran hospitals. Iranian journal of microbiology. 2011; 3(2): 68-74. PubMed

  20. Barma M M, Nasir IA, Babayo A. Bacterial pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern in Intensive Care Units of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Journal of Medicine in the Tropics. 2017; 19(1): 16. Google Scholar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


The Pan African Medical Journal articles are archived on Pubmed Central. Access PAMJ archives on PMC here

Volume 34 (September - December 2019)

Article tools

PDF (456 Kb)
Contact the corresponding author
Download to Citation Manager
EndNote
Reference Manager
Zotero
BibTex
ProCite


Keywords

Superbugs
Prolonged admission
Tertiary hospitals
Kano

Rate this article

Altmetric

PAMJ is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics
PAMJ Authors services
Next abstract

PAMJ is published in collaboration with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET)
Currently tracked by: DOAJ, AIM, Google Scholar, AJOL, EBSCO, Scopus, Embase, IC, HINARI, Global Health, PubMed Central, PubMed/Medline, Ulrichsweb, More to come . Member of COPE.

ISSN: 1937-8688. © 2019 - Pan African Medical Journal. All rights reserved