Article references (127 references )


  1. World Health Organization. Hepatitis B vaccines. Weekly Epidemiological Record. 2009;84(40):405-20. PubMed | Google Scholar

  2. World Health Organization. Hepatitis Fact Sheet. In: Regional Office for Africa, editor. 2016. Google Scholar

  3. World Health Organization. Sixty-fourth session of the WHO Regional Committee for Africa. (cited 17 february 2017)

  4. World Health Organization. WHO-UNICEF estimates of HepB3 coverage 2016 (updated 03/03/2017; cited 2017 04/3/2017).

  5. World Health Organization. WHO-UNICEF estimates of HepB_BD coverage 2016 (updated 03/03/2017; cited 2017 04/03/2017).

  6. World Health Organization. WHO Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: Monitoring System. 2016 Global Summary 2016 (updated 12/1/2016; cited 2016 10/3/2016).

  7. UNICEF. UNICEF Data: Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women 2016 (updated 02/1/2016; cited 2016 10/3/2016).

  8. UNAIDS. HIV estimates with uncertainty bounds 1990-2015 2016 (November 14, 2016).

  9. Kourtis AP, Bulterys M, Hu DJ, Jamieson DJ. HIV-HBV coinfection-a global challenge. N Engl J Med. 2012 May 10;366(19):1749-52. PubMed | Google Scholar

  10. World Health Organization. Global compliance with Hepatitis B vaccine birth dose and factors related to timely schedule. A review (cited 2016 November 14, 2016).

  11. World Health Organization. Hepatitis B (HepB3) immunization coverage estimates by WHO region 2016 (accessed 12/14/2016).

  12. WHO/UNICEF. coverage estimates for 1980-2015: Regional Global Coverage 2016 (cited 04/03/2017).

  13. Chotard J, Inskip HM, Hall AJ, Loik F, Mendy M, Whittle H et al. The Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study: follow-up of a cohort of children vaccinated against hepatitis B. J Infect Dis. 1992 Oct;166(4):764-8. PubMed | Google Scholar

  14. Vall Mayans M, Hall AJ, Inskip HM, Chotard J, Lindsay SW, Coromina E et al. Risk factors for transmission of hepatitis B virus to Gambian children. Lancet. 1990 Nov 3;336(8723):1107-9. PubMed | Google Scholar

  15. Fortuin M, Chotard J, Jack AD, Maine NP, Mendy M, Hall AJ et al. Efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine in the Gambian expanded programme on immunisation. The Lancet. 1993 May 1;341(8853):1129-31. PubMed | Google Scholar

  16. Viviani S, Jack A, Hall AJ, Maine N, Mendy M, Montesano R et al. Hepatitis B vaccination in infancy in The Gambia: protection against carriage at 9 years of age. Vaccine. 1999 Aug 6;17(23-24):2946-50. PubMed | Google Scholar

  17. Whittle H, Jaffar S, Wansbrough M, Mendy M, Dumpis U, Collinson A et al. Observational study on vaccine efficacy 14 years after trial of hepatitis B vaccination in Gambian children. BMJ. 2002 Sep 14;325(7364):569. PubMed | Google Scholar

  18. van der Sande MAB, Waight P, Mendy M, Rayco-Solon P, Hutt P, Fulford T et al. Long-Term Protection against Carriage of Hepatitis B Virus after Infant Vaccination. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2006 Jun 1;193(11):1528-35. Epub 2006 Apr 25. PubMed | Google Scholar

  19. Peto TJ, Mendy ME, Lowe Y, Webb EL, Whittle HC, Hall AJ. Efficacy and effectiveness of infant vaccination against chronic hepatitis B in the Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (1986-90) and in the nationwide immunisation program. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2014;14(7):1471-2334. PubMed | Google Scholar

  20. Akenami FOT, Koskiniemi M, Ekanem EE, Bolarin DM, Vaheri A. Seroprevalence and coprevalence of HIV and HBsAg in Nigerian children with/without protein energy malnutrition. Acta Tropica. 1997;(64):167-74. Google Scholar

  21. Odusanya OO, Alufohai FE, Meurice FP, Wellens R, Weil J, Ahonkhai VI. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen in vaccinated children and controls in rural Nigeria. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2005 May;9(3):139-43. PubMed | Google Scholar

  22. Odusanya OO, Alufohai E, Meurice FP, Ahonkhai VI. Five-year post vaccination efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine in rural Nigeria. Human Vaccines. 2011;7(6):625-9. PubMed | Google Scholar

  23. Sadoh AE, Ofili A. Hepatitis B infection among Nigerian children admitted to a children's emergency room. African Health Sciences. 2014 Jun;14(2):377-83. PubMed | Google Scholar

  24. Okonko I, Okerentugba P, Innocient-Adiele H. Detection of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) among Children in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. The Internet Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2012;10(1). PubMed | Google Scholar

  25. Rapicetta M, Stroffolini T, Ngatchu T, Chionne P, Ciccaglione AR, Lantum D et al. Age- and sex-related study of HBV-DNA in HBsAg asymptomatic children from an endemic area (Cameroon). Annals of Tropical Paediatrics. 1991. Google Scholar

  26. Rey-Cuille MA, Njouom R, Bekondi C, Seck A, Gody C, Bata P et al. Hepatitis B virus exposure during childhood in Cameroon, Central African Republic, and Senegal after the integration of HBV vaccine in the Expanded Program on Immunization. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 2013 Oct;32(10):1110-5. PubMed | Google Scholar

  27. Martinson FE, Weigle KA, Royce RA, Weber DJ, Suchindran CM, Lemon SM. Risk factors for horizontal transmission of hepatitis B virus in a rural district in Ghana. Am J Epidemiol. 1998 Mar 1;147(5):478-87. PubMed | Google Scholar

  28. Dassah S, Sakyi SA, Frempong MT, Luuse AT, Ephraim RK, Anto EO et al. Seroconversion of Hepatitis B Vaccine in Young Children in the Kassena Nankana District of Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study. PLoS One. 2015;10(12):e0145209. PubMed | Google Scholar

  29. Ampah KA, Pinho-Nascimento CA, Kerber S, Asare P, De-Graft D, Adu-Nti F et al. Limited Genetic Diversity of Hepatitis B Virus in the General Population of the Offin River Valley in Ghana. PLoS One. 2016;11(6):e0156864. PubMed | Google Scholar

  30. Excler JL, Yvonnet B, Gaye Y, Monnereau A, Mangin JL, Schlumberger M et al. Inclusion de la vaccination contre l'hépatite B dans le Programme élargi de vaccination: étude de faisabilité dans la région médicale de Kolda (Sénégal). Cahiers Santé. 1995;(5):37-42. PubMed | Google Scholar

  31. Sall Diallo A, Sarr M, Fall Y, Diagne C, Kane MO. Hepatitis B infection in infantile population in Senegal. Dakar Medical. 2004;49(2):136-42. PubMed | Google Scholar

  32. Vardas E, Mathai M, Blaauw D, McAnerney J, Coppin A, Sim J. Preimmunization epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in South African children. Journal of Medical Virology. 1999 Jun;58(2):111-5. PubMed | Google Scholar

  33. Schoub BD, Matai U, Singh B, Blackburn NK, Levin JB. Universal immunization of infants with low doses of a low-cost, plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine in South Africa. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2002;80(4):277-81. PubMed | Google Scholar

  34. Amponsah-Dacosta E, Lebelo RL, Rakgole JN, Burnett RJ, Selabe SG, Mphahlele MJ. Evidence for a change in the epidemiology of hepatitis b virus infection after nearly two decades of universal hepatitis B vaccination in South Africa. Journal of Medical Virology. 2014 Jun;86(6):918-24. PubMed | Google Scholar

  35. Pellizzer G, Ble C, Zamperetti N, Stroffolini T, Upunda G, Rapicetta M et al. Serological survey of hepatitis B infection in Tanzania. Public Health. 1994 Nov;108(6):427-31. PubMed | Google Scholar

  36. Muro FJ, Fiorillo SP, Sakasaka P, Odhiambo C, Reddy EA, Cunningham CK et al. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C Viruses Among Children in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2013 Dec;2(4):320-6. PubMed | Google Scholar

  37. De Paschale M, Ceriani C, Cerulli T, Cagnin D, Cavallari S, Ndayake J, Zaongo D, Priuli, G, Vigano P, Clerici P. Prevalence of HBV, HDV, HCV and HIV Infection During Pregnancy in Northern Benin. Journal of Medical Virology. 2014;86:1281-7. Epub 29 April 2014. Google Scholar

  38. Sangare L, Sombie R, Combassere AW, Kouanda A, Kania D, Zerbo O et al. Antenatal transmission of hepatitis B virus in an area of HIV moderate prevalence, Burkina Faso. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2009 Oct;102(4):226-9. PubMed | Google Scholar

  39. Nacro B, Dao B, Dahourou H, Hien F, Charpentier-Gautier L, Meda N et al. HBs antigen carrier state in pregnant women in Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso). Dakar Med. 2000;45(2):188-90. PubMed | Google Scholar

  40. Collenberg E, Ouedraogo T, Ganame J, Fickenscher H, Kynast-Wolf G, Becher H et al. Seroprevalence of six different viruses among pregnant women and blood donors in rural and urban Burkina Faso: A comparative analysis. J Med Virol. 2006 May;78(5):683-92. PubMed | Google Scholar

  41. Ilboudo D, Karou D, Nadembega WMC, Savadogo A, Djeneba O, Pignatelli S, Pietra V, Bere A, Simpore J, Traore AS. Prevalence of Human Herpes Virus-8 and Hepatitis B Virus among HIV Seropositive Pregnant Women Enrolled in the Mother-to-child HIV Transmission Prevention Program at Saint Camille Medical Centre in Burkina Faso. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2007;10(17):2831-7. PubMed | Google Scholar

  42. Ouermi D, Simpore J, Belem AM, Sanou DS, Karou DS, Ilboudo D et al. Co-infection of Toxoplasma gondii with HBV in HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women in Burkina Faso. Pak J Biol Sci. 2009 Sep 1;12(17):1188-93. PubMed | Google Scholar

  43. Simpore J, Granato M, Santarelli R, Nsme RA, Coluzzi M, Pietra V et al. Prevalence of infection by HHV-8, HIV, HCV and HBV among pregnant women in Burkina Faso. J Clin Virol. 2004 Sep;31(1):78-80. PubMed | Google Scholar

  44. Simpore J, Savadogo A, Ilboudo D, Nadambega MC, Esposito M, Yara J et al. Toxoplasma gondii, HCV and HBV seroprevalence and co-infection among HIV-positive and -negative pregnant women in Burkina Faso. J Med Virol. 2006 Jun;78(6):730-3. PubMed | Google Scholar

  45. Ekra D, Herbinger KH, Konate S, Leblond A, Fretz C, Cilote V et al. A non-randomized vaccine effectiveness trial of accelerated infant hepatitis B immunization schedules with a first dose at birth or age 6 weeks in Cote d'Ivoire. Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2753-61. PubMed | Google Scholar

  46. Lohoues-Kouacou MJ, Toure M, Hillah J, Camara BM, N'Dri N, Kouame KJ et al. Materno-fetal transmission of hepatitis B virus in Ivory Coast - Plea for mass vaccination. Sante. 1998 Nov-Dec;8(6):401-4. PubMed | Google Scholar

  47. Rouet F, Chaix ML, Inwoley A, Msellati P, Viho I, Combe P et al. HBV and HCV Prevalence and Viraemia in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Pregnant Women in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire: The ANRS 1236 Study. Journal of Medical Virology. 2004 Sep;74(1):34-40. PubMed | Google Scholar

  48. Apea-Kubi KA, Yamaguchi S, Sakyi B, Ofori-Adjei D. HTLV-1 and other viral sexually transmitted infections in antenatal and gynaecological patients in Ghana. West African Journal Medicine. 2006;25(1). Google Scholar

  49. Candotti D, Danso K, Allain JP. Maternofetal transmission of hepatitis B virus genotype E in Ghana, west Africa. Journal of General Virology. 2007 Oct;88(Pt 10):2686-95. PubMed | Google Scholar

  50. Cho Y, Bonsu G, Akoto-Ampaw A, Nkrumah-Mills G, Nimo JA, Park JK, et al. The prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis B Surface Ag Positivity in Pregnant Women in Eastern Region of Ghana. Gut and Liver. 2012;6(2):235-40. PubMed | Google Scholar

  51. Ephraim R, Donko I, Sakyi SA, Ampong J, Agbodjakey H. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C infections among pregnant women in the Asante Akim North Municipality of the Ashanti region, Ghana; a cross sectional study. Afr Health Sci. 2015 Sep;15(3):709-13. PubMed | Google Scholar

  52. Sidibe S, Sacko BY, Traore I. Prevalence of serologic markers of the hepatitis B virus in pregnant women of Bamako, Mali. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2001 Nov;94(4):339-41. PubMed | Google Scholar

  53. MacLean B, Hess RF, Bonvillain E, Kamate J, Dao D, Cosimano A et al. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women attending the Hospital for Women & Children in Koutiala, Mali. S Afr Med J. 2011 Dec 14;102(1):47-9. PubMed | Google Scholar

  54. Mansour W, Malick FZ, Sidiya A, Ishagh E, Chekaraou MA, Veillon P et al. Prevalence, risk factors, and molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis delta virus in pregnant women and in patients in Mauritania. J Med Virol. 2012 Aug;84(8):1186-98. PubMed | Google Scholar

  55. Mamadou S, Ide M, Maazou AR, Aoula B, Labo S, Bozari M. HIV infection and hepatitis B seroprevalence among antenatal clinic attendees in Niger, West Africa. HIV AIDS (Auckl). 2012;4:1-4 Epub 2012 Jan 21. PubMed | Google Scholar

  56. Buseri FI, Seiyaboh E, Jeremiah ZA. Surveying Infections among Pregnant Women in the Niger Delta Nigeria. J Glob Infect Dis. 2010;2(3):203-11. PubMed | Google Scholar

  57. Eke AC, Eke UA, Okafor CI, Ezebialu IU, Ogbuagu C. Prevalence, correlates and pattern of hepatitis B surface antigen in a low resource setting. Virol J. 2011 Jan 12;8:12. PubMed | Google Scholar

  58. Eze M, Buseri FI, Wachukwu CK, Nnatuanya IN. Effects of Hepatitis B Infection on Haemtological Parameters in Pregnancy in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Research Journal of Medical Sciences. 2009;3(6):194-7. PubMed | Google Scholar

  59. Ikeako L, Ezegwui H, Ajah L, Dim C, Okeke T. Seroprevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Syphilis, and Co-infections among Antenatal Women in a Tertiary Institution in South East, Nigeria. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2014 Nov;4(6):954-8. PubMed | Google Scholar

  60. Kolawole OM, Wahab AA, Adekanle DA, Sibanda T, Okoh AI. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenemia and its effects on hematological parameters in pregnant women in Osogbo, Nigeria. Virol J. 2012 Dec 27;9:317. PubMed | Google Scholar

  61. Mbaawuaga EM, Enenebeaku MNO, Okopi JA, Damen JG. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection among Pregnant Women in Makurdi, Nigeria. African Journal of Biomedical Research. 2008;11:155-9. Google Scholar

  62. Olokoba AB, Salawu FK, Danburam A, Olokoba LB, Midala JK, Badung LH et al. Hepatitis B virus infection amongst pregnant women in North-eastern Nigeria - a call for action. Niger J Clin Pract. 2011 Jan-Mar;14(1):10-3. PubMed | Google Scholar

  63. Omalu ICJ, Jibrin A, Olayemi IK, Hassan SC, Mgbemena C, Mgbemena A et al. Seroprevalence of Malaria and Hepatitis B (HBsAg) with Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in General Hospital Minna, North-Central Nigeria. Annual Review & Research in Biology. 2012;2(4):83-8. PubMed | Google Scholar

  64. Onakewhor JU, Offor E, Okonofua FE. Maternal and neonatal seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in Benin City, Nigeria. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2001 Nov;21(6):583-6. PubMed | Google Scholar

  65. Osazuwa F, Obinna OV, Chika AF. Sero-epidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B and C among Pregnant Women in Rural Communities of Abaji Area Council, Nigeria. TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin. 2012;11(4). PubMed | Google Scholar

  66. Pennap GR, Muazu IF, Fatima M. Parallel and Overlapping Hepatitis B and C Virus Infection among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal in a Rural Clinic in Northern Nigeria. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2015;4(5):16-23. PubMed | Google Scholar

  67. Pennap GR, Osanga ET, Ubam A. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Federal Medical Center Keffi, Nigeria. Research Journal of Medical Sciences. 2011;5(2):80-2. PubMed | Google Scholar

  68. Ugbebor O, Aigbirior M, Osazuwa F, Enabudoso E, Zabayo O. The prevalence of hepatitis B and C viral infections among pregnant women. N Am J Med Sci. 2011 May;3(5):238-41. PubMed | Google Scholar

  69. Usanga V, Abia-Bassey L, Inyang-etoh P, Udoh S, Ani F, Archibong E. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. The Internet Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2009;14(2). PubMed | Google Scholar

  70. Aba HO, Aminu M. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus serological markers among pregnant Nigerian women. Ann Afr Med. 2016 Jan-Mar;15(1):20-7. PubMed | Google Scholar

  71. Adegbesan-Omilabu MA, Okunade KS, Gbadegesin A, Olowoselu OF, Oluwole AA, Omilabu SA. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women at the antenatal booking clinic of a Tertiary Hospital in Lagos Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice. 2016;18(6). PubMed | Google Scholar

  72. Anaedobe CG, Fowotade A, Omoruyi CE, Bakare RA. Prevalence, sociodemographic features and risk factors of Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women in Southwestern Nigeria. Pan Afr Med J. 2015;20:406. PubMed | Google Scholar

  73. Faleye TO, Adewumi MO, Ifeorah IM, Omoruyi EC, Bakarey SA, Akere A et al. Detection of hepatitis B virus isolates with mutations associated with immune escape mutants among pregnant women in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. Springerplus. 2015;4:43. PubMed | Google Scholar

  74. Iklaki CU, Emechebe CI, Ago BU, Njoku CO. Sero-prevalence of Hepatitis B infection and its risk factors among women admitted for delivery in Ucth, Calabar, Nigeria. British Journal of Medicine & Medical Research. 2015;8(4):324-33. PubMed | Google Scholar

  75. Olaleye OA, Kuti O, Makinde NO, Ujah AO, Olaleye OA, Badejoko OO et al. Perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in Ile-Ife, South Western, Nigeria. J Neonatal Perinatal Med. 2013;6(3):231-6. PubMed | Google Scholar

  76. Opaleye OO, Igboama MC, Ojo JA, Odewale G. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and HTLV among pregnant women in Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry. 2016;37(1):29-42. PubMed | Google Scholar

  77. Utoo BT. Hepatitis B surface antigenemia (HBsAg) among pregnant women in southern Nigeria. Afr Health Sci. 2013 Dec;13(4):1139-43. PubMed | Google Scholar

  78. Adeyemi AB, Enabor OO, Ugwu IA, Abraham OA, Bello FA, Olayemi O. Prevalence of antenatal hepatitis B infection in tertiary and non-tertiary health facilities in Ibadan, Nigeria. Niger J Med. 2014 Jul-Sep;23(3):248-53. PubMed | Google Scholar

  79. Akani CI, Ojule AC, Opurum HC, Ejilemele AA. Sero-prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in pregnant women in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Niger Postgrad Med J. 2005 Dec;12(4):266-70. PubMed | Google Scholar

  80. Baba MM, Onwuka IS, Baba SS. Hepatitis B and C virus infections among pregnant women in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Central European Journal of Public Health. 1999;7(2):60-2. PubMed | Google Scholar

  81. Onwere S, Chigbu B, Aluka C, Kamanu CI, Okoro O, Ndukwe PE et al. Risk Factors for Hepatitis B Virus Infection during Pregnancy in South Eastern Nigeria. East Afr Med J. 2012 Mar;89(3):89-93. PubMed | Google Scholar

  82. Wurie IM, Wurie AT, Gevao SM. Sero-prevalence of hepatitis B virus among middle to high socio-economic antenatal population in Sierra Leone. West Afr J Med. 2005 Jan-Mar;24(1):18-20. PubMed | Google Scholar

  83. Abongwa LM, Clara AM, Edouard NA, Ngum NH. Sero-Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Co-Infection among Pregnant Women Residing in Bamenda Health District, Cameroon. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2015;4(12):473-83. PubMed | Google Scholar

  84. Dionne-Odom J, Mbah R, Rembert NJ, Tancho S, Halle-Ekane GE, Enah C et al. Hepatitis B, HIV, and Syphilis Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women and Blood Donors in Cameroon. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2016;2016:4359401. PubMed | Google Scholar

  85. Ducancelle A, Abgueguen P, Birguel J, Mansour W, Pivert A, Le Guillou-Guillemette H, et al. High endemicity and low molecular diversity of hepatitis B virus infections in pregnant women in a rural district of North Cameroon. PLoS One. 2013;8(11):e80346. PubMed | Google Scholar

  86. Fomulu NJ, Morfaw FL, Torimiro JN, Nana P, Koh MV, William T. Prevalence, correlates and pattern of Hepatitis B among antenatal clinic attenders in Yaounde-Cameroon: is perinatal transmission of HBV neglected in Cameroon?. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2013 Aug 08;13:158. PubMed | Google Scholar

  87. Frambo AA, Atashili J, Fon PN, Ndumbe PM. Prevalence of HBsAg and knowledge about hepatitis B in pregnancy in the Buea Health District, Cameroon: a cross-sectional study. BMC Res Notes. 2014 Jun 25;7:394. PubMed | Google Scholar

  88. Kfutwah AKW, Tejiokem MC, Njouom R. A low proportion of HBeAg among HBsAg- positive pregnant women with known HIV status could suggest low perinatal transmission of HBV in Cameroon. Virology Journal. 2012;9(62). PubMed | Google Scholar

  89. Noubiap JJ, Nansseu JR, Ndoula ST, Bigna JJ, Jingi AM, Fokom-Domgue J. Prevalence, infectivity and correlates of hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women in a rural district of the Far North Region of Cameroon. BMC Public Health. 2015 May 02;15:454. PubMed | Google Scholar

  90. Makuwa M, Caron M, Souquiere S, Malonga-Mouelet G, Mahe A, Kazanji M. Prevalence and genetic diversity of hepatitis B and delta viruses in pregnant women in Gabon: molecular evidence that hepatitis delta virus clade 8 originates from and is endemic in central Africa. J Clin Microbiol. 2008 Feb;46(2):754-6. PubMed | Google Scholar

  91. Awole M, Gebre-Selassie S. Seroprevalence of HBsAg and its risk factors among pregnant women in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Dev. 2005;19(1). PubMed | Google Scholar

  92. Desalegn Z, Wassie L, Beyene HB, Mihret A, Ebstie YA. Hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection among pregnant women in resource-limited high endemic setting, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: implications for prevention and control measures. Eur J Med Res. 2016 Apr 14;21:16. PubMed | Google Scholar

  93. Metaferia Y, Dessie W, Ali I, Amsalu A. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of hepatitis B virus among pregnant women in southern Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional study. Epidemiol Health. 2016;38:e2016027. PubMed | Google Scholar

  94. Molla S, Munshea A, Nibret E. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and anti HCV antibody and its associated risk factors among pregnant women attending maternity ward of Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. Virol J. 2015 Dec 02;12:204. PubMed | Google Scholar

  95. Ramos JM, Toro C, Reyes F, Amor A, Gutierrez F. Seroprevalence of HIV-1, HBV, HTLV-1 and Treponema pallidum among pregnant women in a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Clinical Virology. 2011 May;51(1):83-5. Google Scholar

  96. Tegegne D, Desta K, Tegbaru B, Tilahun T. Seroprevalence and transmission of Hepatitis B virus among delivering women and their new born in selected health facilities, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study. BMC Res Notes. 2014 Apr 15;7:239. PubMed | Google Scholar

  97. Yohanes T, Zerdo Z, Chufamo N. Seroprevalence and Predictors of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Pregnant Women Attending Routine Antenatal Care in Arba Minch Hospital, South Ethiopia. Hepat Res Treat. 2016;2016:9290163. PubMed | Google Scholar

  98. Zenebe Y, Mulu W, Yimer M, Abera B. Sero-prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus infection among pregnant women in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study. BMC Infect Dis. 2014 Mar 01;14:118. PubMed | Google Scholar

  99. Tiruneh M. Seroprevalence of multiple sexually transmitted infections among antenatal clinic attendees in Gondar Health Center, northwest Ethiopia. Ethiop Med J. 2008;46(4):359-66. PubMed | Google Scholar

  100. Okoth F, Mbuthia J, Gatheru Z, Murila F, Kanyingi F, Mugo F et al. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B markers in pregnant women in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2006 Sep;83(9):485-93. PubMed | Google Scholar

  101. Randriamahazo TR, Raherinaivo AA, Rakotoarivelo ZH, Contamin B, Rakoto Alson OA, Andrianapanalinarivo HR et al. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus serologic markers in pregnant patients in Antananarivo, Madagascar. Med Mal Infect. 2015 Jan-Feb;45(1-2):17-20. PubMed | Google Scholar

  102. Andersson MI, Maponga TG, Ijaz S, Barnes J, Theron GB, Meredith SA et al. The epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women in the Western Cape, South Africa. Vaccine. 2013 Nov 12;31(47):5579-84. PubMed | Google Scholar

  103. Burnett RJ, Ngobeni JM, Francois G, Hoosen AA, Leroux-Roels G, Meheus A et al. Increased exposure to hepatitis B virus infection in HIV-positive South African antenatal women. Int J STD AIDS. 2007 Mar;18(3):152-6. PubMed | Google Scholar

  104. Diale Q, Pattinson R, Chokoe R, Masenyetse L, Mayaphi S. Antenatal screening for hepatitis B virus in HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women in the Tshwane district of South Africa. S Afr Med J. 2015 Dec 16;106(1):97-100. PubMed | Google Scholar

  105. Thumbiran NV, Moodley D, Parboosing R, Moodley P. Hepatitis B and HIV co-infection in pregnant women: indication for routine antenatal hepatitis B virus screening in a high HIV prevalence setting. S Afr Med J. 2014 Apr;104(4):307-9. PubMed | Google Scholar

  106. Bayo P, Ochola E, Oleo C, Mwaka AD. High prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care: a cross-sectional study in two hospitals in northern Uganda. BMJ Open. 2014 Nov 11;4(11):e005889. PubMed | Google Scholar

  107. Croce F, Fedeli P, Dahoma M, Deho L, Ramsan M, Adorni F et al. Risk factors for HIV/AIDS in a low HIV prevalence site of sub-Saharan Africa. Trop Med Int Health. 2007 Sep;12(9):1011-7. PubMed | Google Scholar

  108. Menendez C, Sanchez-Tapias JM, Kahigwa E, Mshinda H, Costa J, Vidal J et al. Prevalence and mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis viruses B, C and E in Southern Tanzania. J Med Virol. 1999 Jul;58(3):215-20. PubMed | Google Scholar

  109. Rashid S, Kilewo C, Aboud S. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among antenatal clinic attendees at a tertiary hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Tanzan J Health Res. 2014 Jan;16(1):9-15. PubMed | Google Scholar

  110. Mavenyengwa RT, Moyo SR, Nordbo SA. Streptococcus agalactiae colonization and correlation with HIV-1 and HBV seroprevalence in pregnant women from Zimbabwe. European Journal of Obstretrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2009;150:34-8. PubMed | Google Scholar

  111. Madzime S, Adem M, Mahomed K, Woelk GB, Mudzamiri S, Williams MA. Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women delivering at Harare Maternity Hospital, Harare Zimbabwe, 1996 to 1997. Cent Afr J Med. 1999 Aug;45(8):195-8. PubMed | Google Scholar

  112. Miyahara R, Jasseh M, Gomez P, Shimakawa Y, Greenwood B, Keita K et al. Barriers to timely administration of birth dose vaccines in The Gambia, West Africa. Vaccine. 2016 Jun 17;34(29):3335-41. PubMed | Google Scholar

  113. Wiesen E, Diorditsa S, Li X. Progress towards hepatitis B prevention through vaccination in the Western Pacific, 1990-2014. Vaccine. 2016 May 27;34(25):2855-62. PubMed | Google Scholar

  114. World Health Organization. Preventing perinatal Hepatitis B Virus Transmission: A guide for Introducing and Strengthening Hepatitis B birth dose vaccination. 2015 (14 December 2016).

  115. UNICEF. HepB-UNICEF 2016 (updated 4/14/2016; cited 2016 12/15/2016).

  116. World Health Organization. Summary of the October 2016 meeting of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization (SAGE) 2016 (cited 2016 12/14/2016).

  117. Borresen ML, Koch A, Biggar RJ, Ladefoged K, Melbye M, Wohlfahrt J et al. Effectiveness of the targeted hepatitis B vaccination program in Greenland. Am J Public Health. 2012 Feb;102(2):277-84. PubMed | Google Scholar

  118. Hutin Y, Hennessey K, Cairns L, Zhang Y, Li H, Zhao L et al. Improving hepatitis B vaccine timely birth dose coverage: lessons from five demonstration projects in China, 2005-2009. Vaccine. 2013 Dec 27;31 Suppl 9:J49-55. PubMed | Google Scholar

  119. Hennessey K, Mendoza-Aldana J, Bayutas B, Lorenzo-Mariano KM, Diorditsa S. Hepatitis B control in the World Health Organization's Western Pacific Region: targets, strategies, status. Vaccine. 2013 Dec 27;31 Suppl 9:J85-92. PubMed | Google Scholar

  120. Xeuatvongsa A, Datta SS, Moturi E, Wannemuehler K, Philakong P, Vongxay V et al. Improving hepatitis B birth dose in rural Lao People's Democratic Republic through the use of mobile phones to facilitate communication. Vaccine. 2016 Nov 11;34(47):5777-84. PubMed | Google Scholar

  121. Sutanto A, Suarnawa IM, Nelson CM, Stewart T, Soewarso TI. Home delivery of heat-stable vaccines in Indonesia: outreach immunization with a prefilled, single-use injection device. Bull World Health Organ. 1999;77(2):119-26. PubMed | Google Scholar

  122. World Health Organization. A systematic review of monovalent hepatitis B vaccine thermostability. Evidence presented to SAGE, October 2016 (cited 2016 11/14/2016).

  123. Creati M, Saleh A, Ruff TA, Stewart T, Otto B, Sutanto A et al. Implementing the birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine in rural Indonesia. Vaccine. 2007 Aug 10;25(32):5985-93. PubMed | Google Scholar

  124. Wang L, Li J, Chen H, Li F, Armstrong GL, Nelson C et al. Hepatitis B vaccination of newborn infants in rural China: evaluation of a village-based, out-of-cold-chain delivery strategy. Bull World Health Organ. 2007 Sep;85(9):688-94. PubMed | Google Scholar

  125. Kolwaite AR, Xeuatvongsa A, Ramirez-Gonzalez A, Wannemuehler K, Vongxay V, Vilayvone V et al. Hepatitis B vaccine stored outside the cold chain setting: a pilot study in rural Lao PDR. Vaccine. 2016 Jun 14;34(28):3324-30. PubMed | Google Scholar

  126. Huong VM, Hipgrave D, Hills S, Nelson C, Hien DS, Cuong NV. Out-of-Cold-Chain Delivery of the Hepatitis B Birth Dose in Four Districts of Vietnam. PATH (Program for Appropriate Technology in Health), 2006 October 2006. Report No. PubMed | Google Scholar

  127. World Health Organization. Prevention, Care and Treatment of Viral Hepatitis in the African Region: Framework for Action, 2016-2020. In: Regional Office for Africa, editor. 2016 (cited 17 february 2017).