Article references (13 references )


  1. World Health Organization. The global elimination of congenital syphilis: rationale and strategy for action. The global elimination of congenital syphilis: rationale and strategy for action. 2007. Accessed 07 January 2017.

  2. Hill AV, Allsopp CE, Kwiatkowski D, Taylor TE, Yates SN, Anstey NM et al. Extensive genetic diversity in the HLA class II region of Africans, with a focally predominant allele, DRB1*1304. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA. 1992;89(6):2277-2281. PubMed | Google Scholar

  3. Clerici M, Butto S, Lukwiya M, Saresella M, Declich S, Trabattoni D et al. Immune activation in africa is environmentally-driven and is associated with upregulation of CCR5. Italian-Ugandan AIDS Project. AIDS. 2000 Sep 29;14(14):2083-92. PubMed | Google Scholar

  4. Cao K, Moormann AM, Lyke KE, Masaberg C, Sumba OP, Doumbo OK et al. Differentiation between African populations is evidenced by the diversity of alleles and haplotypes of HLA class I loci. Tissue antigens. 2004;63(4):293-325. PubMed | Google Scholar

  5. Klarkowski D, O'Brien DP, Shanks L, Singh KP. Causes of false-positive HIV rapid diagnostic test results. Expert review of anti-infective therapy. 2014;12(1):49-62. PubMed | Google Scholar

  6. Marks M, Yin YP, Chen XS, Castro A, Causer L, Guy R et al. Meta-analysis of the performance of a combined treponemal and non-treponemal rapid diagnostic test for syphilis and yaws. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63(5):627-33. Google Scholar

  7. Mbopi-Keou FX, Ndjoyi-Mbiguino A, Talla F, Péré H, Kebe K, Matta M et al. Association of inconclusive sera for human immunodeficiency virus infection with malaria and Epstein-Barr virus infection in Central Africa. J Clin Microbiol. 2014;52(2):660-2. PubMed | Google Scholar

  8. Jenabian MA, Costiniuk CT, Talla P, Robin L, Tonen Wolyec S, Mboumba Bouassa RS et al. Potential for false-positive results with serological assays for HIV in Central Africa: implications for the HIV serodiagnosis algorithm according to the 2015 consolidated WHO Recommendations for resource-constrained countries. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2017;33(11):1077-1079. PubMed | Google Scholar

  9. Castro AR, Esfandiari J, Kumar S, Ashton M, Kikkert SE, Park MM et al. Novel point-of-care test for simultaneous detection of non-treponemal and treponemal antibodies in patients with syphilis. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48(12):4615-4619. PubMed | Google Scholar

  10. Guinard J, Prazuck T, Péré H, Poirier C, LeGoff J, Boedec E et al. Usefulness in clinical practice of a point-of-care rapid test for simultaneous detection of non-treponemal and Treponema pallidum-specific antibodies in patients suffering from documented syphilis. Int J STD AIDS. 2013;24(12):944-50. PubMed | Google Scholar

  11. Morshed MG, Singh AE. Recent trends in the serologic diagnosis of syphilis. Clin Vacc immunol. 2015;22 (2):137-147. PubMed | Google Scholar

  12. Alves C, Souza T, Meyer I, Toralles MB, Brites C. Immunogenetics and infectious diseases: special reference to the mayor histocompatibility complex. Braz J of Infect Dis. 2006;10:122-131. PubMed | Google Scholar

  13. Santos T de J, Costa CM, Goubau P, Vandamme AM, Desmyter J, Dooren SV et al. Western blot sero-indeterminate individuals for human T-lymphotropic virus I/II (HTLV-I/II) in Fortaleza (Brazil): a serological and molecular diagnostic and epidemiological approach. Braz J Infect Dis. 2003;7(3):202-209. PubMed | Google Scholar