Article references (56 references )

  1. UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, UN-DESA Population Division. Levels and trends in child mortality: estimates developed by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (2017 Report). Accessed 18 June 2018.

  2. World Health Organization. Global Health Observatory data repository: probability of dying per 1000 live births-data by WHO region (2016) . Accessed 18 June 2018.

  3. World Health Organization. Verbal autopsy standards: the 2016 WHO verbal autopsy instrument. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2016.

  4. Thomas LM, D'Ambruoso L, Balabanova D. Verbal autopsy in health policy and systems: a literature review. BMJ Glob Health. 2018;3(2):e000639. PubMed | Google Scholar

  5. Leitao J, Chandramohan D, Byass P, Jakob R, Bundhamcharoen K, Choprapawon C et al. Revising the WHO verbal autopsy instrument to facilitate routine cause-of-death monitoring. Glob Health Action. 2013 Sep 13;6:21518. PubMed | Google Scholar

  6. Murray CJ, Lozano R, Flaxman AD, Serina P, Phillips D, Stewart A et al. Using verbal autopsy to measure causes of death: the comparative performance of existing methods. BMC Med. 2014 Jan 9;12:5. PubMed | Google Scholar

  7. Desai N, Aleksandrowicz L, Miasnikof P, Lu Y, Leitao J, Byass P et al. Performance of four computer-coded verbal autopsy methods for cause of death assignment compared with physician coding on 24,000 deaths in low- and middle-income countries. BMC Med. 2014 Feb 4;12:20 PubMed | Google Scholar

  8. Nichols EK, Byass P, Chandramohan D, Clark SJ, Flaxman AD, Jakob R et al. WHO Verbal Autopsy Working Group,the WHO 2016 verbal autopsy instrument: An international standard suitable for automated analysis by InterVA, InSilicoVA, and Tariff 20. PLoS Med. 2018;15(1):e1002486. PubMed | Google Scholar

  9. Joubert J, Bradshaw D, Kabudula C, Rao C, Kahn K, Mee P et al. Record-linkage comparison of verbal autopsy and routine civil registration death certification in rural north-east South Africa: 2006-09. Int J Epidemiol. 2014;43(6):1945-1958. PubMed | Google Scholar

  10. de Savigny D, Riley I, Chandramohan D, Odhiambo F, Nichols E, Notzon S et al. Integrating community-based verbal autopsy into civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS): system-level considerations. Glob Health Action. 2017;10(1):1272882. PubMed | Google Scholar

  11. Murray CJ, Lopez AD, Black R, Ahuja R, Ali SM, Baqui A et al. Population Health Metrics Research Consortium gold standard verbal autopsy validation study: design, implementation, and development of analysis datasets. Popul Health Metr. 2011;9:27. PubMed | Google Scholar

  12. Lozano R, Lopez AD, Atkinson C, Naghavi M, Flaxman AD, Murray CJL et al. Performance of physician-certified verbal autopsies: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards. Popul Health Metr. 2011;9:32. PubMed | Google Scholar

  13. Boulle A, Chandramohan D, Weller P. A case study of using artificial neural networks for classifying cause of death from verbal autopsy. Int J Epidemiol. 2001 Jun;30(3):515-20. PubMed | Google Scholar

  14. Quigley MA, Chandramohan D, Setel P, Binka F, Rodrigues LC. Validity of data-derived algorithms for ascertaining causes of adult death in two African sites using verbal autopsy. Trop Med Int Health. 2000 Jan;5(1):33-9. PubMed | Google Scholar

  15. Byass P, Huong DL, Minh HV. A probabilistic approach to interpreting verbal autopsies: methodology and preliminary validation in Vietnam. Scand J Public Health Suppl. 2003;62:32-7. PubMed | Google Scholar

  16. Oti SO, Kyobutungi C. Verbal autopsy interpretation: a comparative analysis of the InterVA model versus physician review in determining causes of death in the Nairobi DSS. Popul Health Metr. 2010 Jun 29;8:21. PubMed | Google Scholar

  17. Murray CJL, Lopez AD, Feehan DM, Peter ST, Yang G. Validation of the Symptom Pattern Method for Analyzing Verbal Autopsy Data. PLoS Med. 2007 Nov 20;4(11):e327. PubMed | Google Scholar

  18. King G, Lu Y. Verbal Autopsy Methods with Multiple Causes of Death. Statistical Science. 2008;23(1):78-91. Google Scholar

  19. Murray CJL, Lozano R, Flaxman AD, Vahdatpour A, Lopez AD. Robust metrics for assessing the performance of different verbal autopsy cause assignment methods in validation studies. Popul Health Metr. 2011 Aug 4;9:28. PubMed | Google Scholar

  20. Flaxman AD, Vahdatpour A, James SL, Birnbaum JK, Murray CJL, The Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC). Direct estimation of cause-specific mortality fractions from verbal autopsies: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards. Popul Health Metr. 2011 Aug 4;9:35. PubMed | Google Scholar

  21. James SL, Flaxman AD, Murray CJL, The Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC). Performance of the Tariff Method: validation of a simple additive algorithm for analysis of verbal autopsies. Popul Health Metr. 2011 Aug 4;9:31. PubMed | Google Scholar

  22. Flaxman AD, Vahdatpour A, Green S, James SL, Murray CJL, The Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC). Random forests for verbal autopsy analysis: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards. Popul Health Metr. 2 2011 Aug 4;9:29. PubMed | Google Scholar

  23. Menendez C, Castillo P, Martínez MJ, Jordao D, Lovane L, Ismail MR et al. Validity of a minimally invasive autopsy for cause of death determination in stillborn babies and neonates in Mozambique: An observational study. PLoS Med. 2017 Jun 20;14(6):e1002318. PubMed | Google Scholar

  24. Byass P, Herbst K, Fottrell E, Ali MM, Odhiambo F, Amek N et al. Comparing verbal autopsy cause of death findings as determined by physician coding and probabilistic modelling: a public health analysis of 54000 deaths in Africa and Asia. J Glob Health. 2015;5(1):010402. PubMed | Google Scholar

  25. Tran HT, Nguyen HP, Walker SM, Hill PS, Rao C. Validation of verbal autopsy methods using hospital medical records: a case study in Vietnam. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2018;18(1):43. PubMed | Google Scholar

  26. Yang G, Rao C, Ma J, Wang L, Wan X, Dubrovsky G, Lopez AD. Validation of verbal autopsy procedures for adult deaths in China. Int J Epidemiol. 2006;35(3):741-8. PubMed | Google Scholar

  27. Adewemimo A, Kalter HD, Perin J, Koffi AK, Quinley J, Black RE. Direct estimates of cause-specific mortality fractions and rates of under-five deaths in the northern and southern regions of Nigeria by verbal autopsy interview. PLoS One. 2017;12(5):e0178129. PubMed | Google Scholar

  28. Mpimbaza A, Filler S, Katureebe A, Quick L, Chandramohan D, Staedke SG. Verbal Autopsy: Evaluation of Methods to Certify Causes of Death in Uganda. PLoS One. 2015;10(6):e0128801. PubMed | Google Scholar

  29. Kalter HD, Roubanatou AM, Koffi A, Black RE. Direct estimates of national neonatal and child cause-specific mortality proportions in Niger by expert algorithm and physician-coded analysis of verbal autopsy interviews. J Glob Health. 2015;5(1):010415. PubMed | Google Scholar

  30. Ndila C, Bauni E, Nyirongo V, Mochamah G, Makazi A, Kosgei P et al. Verbal autopsy as a tool for identifying children dying of sickle cell disease: a validation study conducted in Kilifi district, Kenya. BMC Med. 2014;12:65. PubMed | Google Scholar

  31. Mpimbaza A, Filler S, Katureebe A, Kinara SO, Nzabandora E, Quick L et al. Validity of verbal autopsy procedures for determining malaria deaths in different epidemiological settings in Uganda. PLoS One. 2011;6(10):e26892. PubMed | Google Scholar

  32. Edmond KM, Quigley MA, Zandoh C, Danso S, Hurt C, Owusu Agyei S et al. Diagnostic accuracy of verbal autopsies in ascertaining the causes of stillbirths and neonatal deaths in rural Ghana.Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2008;22(5):417-29. PubMed | Google Scholar

  33. Setel PW, Whiting DR, Hemed Y, Chandramohan D, Wolfson LJ, Alberti KG et al. Validity of verbal autopsy procedures for determining cause of death in Tanzania. Trop Med Int Health. 2006;11(5):681-96. PubMed | Google Scholar

  34. Fantahun M, Fottrell E, Berhane Y, Wall S, Högberg U, Byass P. Assessing a new approach to verbal autopsy interpretation in a ruralEthiopian community: the InterVA model. Bull World Health Organ. 2006;84(3):204-10. PubMed | Google Scholar

  35. Kahn K, Tollman SM, Garenne M, Gear JS. Validation and application of verbal autopsies in a rural area of South Africa.Trop Med Int Health. 2000;5(11):824-31. PubMed | Google Scholar

  36. Quigley MA, Armstrong Schellenberg JR, Snow RW. Algorithms for verbal autopsies: validation study in Kenyan children. Bull World Health Organ. 1996;74(2):147-54. PubMed | Google Scholar

  37. Mobley CC, Boerma JT, Titus S, Lohrke B, Shangula K, Black RE. Validation study of a verbal autopsy method for causes of childhood mortality in Namibia. J Trop Pediatr. 1996;42(6):365-9. PubMed | Google Scholar

  38. Nykanen M, Tamaona W, Cullinan T, Van Oosterzee V, Ashorn P. Verbal autopsy as a technique to establish causes of infant and child mortality. East Afr Med J. 1995;72(11):731-4. PubMed | Google Scholar

  39. Todd JE, De Francisco A, O'Dempsey TJ, Greenwood BM. The limitations of verbal autopsy in a malaria-endemic region. Ann Trop Paediatr. 1994;14(1):31-6. PubMed | Google Scholar

  40. Snow RW, Armstrong JR, Forster D, Winstanley MT, Marsh VM, Newton CR et al. Childhood deaths in Africa: uses and limitations of verbal autopsies. Lancet. 1992;340(8815):351-5. PubMed | Google Scholar

  41. Yé M, Diboulo E, Niamba L, Sié A, Coulibaly B, Bagagnan C et al. An improved method for physician-certified verbal autopsy reduces the rate of discrepancy: experiences in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (NHDSS), Burkina Faso. Popul Health Metr. 2011;9:34. PubMed | Google Scholar

  42. Leitao J, Desai N, Aleksandrowicz L, Byass P, Miasnikof P, Tollman S et al. Comparison of physician-certified verbal autopsy with computer-coded verbal autopsy for cause of death assignment in hospitalized patients in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review. BMC Med. 2014;12:22. PubMed | Google Scholar

  43. Morris SK, Bassani DG, Kumar R, Awasthi S, Paul VK, Jha P. Factors associated with physician agreement on verbal autopsy of over 27000 childhood deaths in India. PLoS ONE. 2010 Mar 8;5(3):e9583. PubMed | Google Scholar

  44. Engmann C, Jehan I, Ditekemena J, Garces A, Phiri M, Mazariegos M et al. An alternative strategy for perinatal verbal autopsy coding: single versus multiple coders. Trop Med Int Health. 2011;16(1):18-29. PubMed | Google Scholar

  45. Fottrell E, Byass P. Verbal autopsy: methods in transition. Epidemiol Rev. 2010;32:38-55. PubMed | Google Scholar

  46. Byass P, Hussain-Alkhateeb L, D'Ambruoso L, Clark S, Davies J, Fottrell E et al. An integrated approach to processing WHO-2016 verbal autopsy data: the InterVA-5 model. BMC Med. 2019;17(1):10. PubMed | Google Scholar

  47. Lozano R, Freeman MK, James SL, Campbell B, Lopez AD, Flaxman AD et al. Performance of InterVA for assigning causes of death to verbal autopsies: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards. Popul Health Metr. 2011;9:50. PubMed | Google Scholar

  48. Bauni E, Ndila C, Mochamah G, Nyutu G, Matata L, Ondieki C et al. Validating physician-certified verbal autopsy and probabilistic modeling (InterVA) approaches to verbal autopsy interpretation using hospital causes of adult deaths. Popul Health Metr. 2011;9:49. PubMed | Google Scholar

  49. Byass P, Fottrell E, Dao LH, Berhane Y, Corrah T, Kahn K et al. Refining a probabilistic model for interpreting verbal autopsy data. Scand J Public Health. 2006;34(1):26-31. PubMed | Google Scholar

  50. World Health Organization. The World health report 2000: health systems: improving performance. Geneva, Switzerland. 2000. Google Scholar

  51. Abouzahr C. Verbal autopsy: who needs it?. Popul Health Metr. 2011;9:19. PubMed | Google Scholar

  52. Oluwasola OA, Fawole OI, Otegbayo AJ, Ogun GO, Adebamowo CA, Bamigboye AE. The autopsy: knowledge, attitude, and perceptions of doctors and relatives of the deceased. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2009;133(1):78-82. PubMed | Google Scholar

  53. Lishimpi K, Chintu C, Lucas S, Mudenda V, Kaluwaji J, Story A et al. Necropsies in African children: consent dilemmas for parents and guardians. Arch Dis Child. 2001;84(6):463-7. PubMed | Google Scholar

  54. Banyini AV, Rees D, Gilbert L. "Even if I were to consent, my family will never agree": exploring autopsy services for posthumous occupational lung disease compensation among mineworkers in South Africa. Glob Health Action. 2013;6:19518. PubMed | Google Scholar

  55. Cox JA, Lukande RL, Kateregga A, Mayanja-Kizza H, Manabe YC, Colebunders R. Autopsy acceptance rate and reasons for decline in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Trop Med Int Health. 2011;16(8):1015-8. PubMed | Google Scholar

  56. World Health Organization, Health statistics and information systems. Verbal autopsy standards: ascertaining and attributing causes of death (The 2016 WHO verbal autopsy instrument). Accessed 18 June 2018.