Article references (30 references )


  1. Fraser, Diane M, Margaret A Cooper. Myles' Textbook for Midwives. Elsevier Health Sciences UK. Kindle Edition, pg 1063.

  2. Frĝen JF, Cacciatore J, McClure EM, Kuti O, Jokhio AH, Islam M, Shiffman J. Stillbirths: why they matter. The Lancet. 2011; 377(9774): 1353-1366. PubMed | Google Scholar

  3. Murguia-Peniche T, Illescas-Zarate D, Chico-Barba G, Bhutta ZA. An ecological study of stillbirths in Mexico from 2000 to 201 Bull World Health Organ. 2016; 94(5): 322-330A. PubMed

  4. Lawn JE, Blencowe H, Pattinson R, Cousens S, Kumar R, Ibiebele I, Gardosi J, Day LT, Stanton C. Stillbirths: Where? When? Why? How to make the data count? The Lancet. 2011; 377(9775): 1448-1463. PubMed | Google Scholar

  5. Goldenberg RL, Kirby R, Culhane JF. Stillbirth: a review. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2004; 16(2): 79-94. PubMed | Google Scholar

  6. Joy EL, Michael GG, Toni MN, Craig ER, Cynthia S. Global report on preterm birth and stillbirth: definitions, description of the burden and opportunities to improve data. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2010; 10(Supp 1): S1. Google Scholar

  7. Central Statistics Agency. Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey. Addis Ababa, 2011. 2012: 115-116. Accessed on 19/11/2018.

  8. Marshall J, Raynor M (eds). Myles Textbook for Midwives, Sixth ed. London: ELSEVIER; 2014.

  9. Beauclair R, Petro G, Myer L. The association between timing of initiation of antenatal care and stillbirths: a retrospective cohort study of pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2014; 14: 204. PubMed | Google Scholar

  10. Desire DT, Julia B. Modifiable antenatal risk factors for stillbirth amongst pregnant women in the Omusati region, Namibia. African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine. 2016; 8(1): 1054. PubMed | Google Scholar

  11. Endris M, Deressa T, Belyhun Y, Moges F. Seroprevalence of syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus infections among pregnant women who attend the University of Gondar teaching hospital, North-West Ethiopia: a cross sectional study. BMC Infect Dis. 2015; 15: 111. Google Scholar

  12. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Ministry of Health. Health and Health related indicators. 2003/2011 G.C. Accessed on 19/11/2018.

  13. Cheptum JJ, Muiruri N, Mutua E, Gitonga M, Juma M. Correlates of Stillbirths at Nyeri Provincial General Hospital, Kenya, 2009-2013: a retrospective study. International Journal of MCH and AIDS. 2016; 5(1): 24-31. PubMed

  14. Sharma S, Sidhu H, Kaur S. Analytical study of intrauterine fetal death cases and associated maternal conditions. Int J Appl Basic Med Res. 2016; 6(1): 11-13. PubMed

  15. Ahmad AS, Samuelsen SO. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and fetal death at different gestational lengths. A population study of 2, 121, 371 pregnancies. BJOG. 2012; 119(12): 1521-1528. PubMed | Google Scholar

  16. Kilewo C, Natchu U, Young A, Donnell D, Brown E, Read J, Sharma U, Chi B, Goldenberg R, Hoffman I et al. Hypertension in Pregnancy among HIV-Infected Women in Sub-Saharan Africa: Prevalence and Infant Outcomes. Afr J Reprod Health. 2009; 13(4): 25-36. PubMed | Google Scholar

  17. Singh R, Prasad N, Banka A, Gupta A, Bhadauria D, Sharma RK, Kaul A. Pregnancy in patients with chronic kidney disease: maternal and fetal outcomes. Indian J Nephrol. 2015; 25(4): 194-199. PubMed

  18. Trudell AS, Tuuli MG, Colditz GA, Macones GA, Odibo AO. A stillbirth calculator: development and internal validation of a clinical prediction model to quantify stillbirth risk. PLoS One. 2017; 12(3): e0173461. PubMed | Google Scholar

  19. Mwanri AW, Kinabo J, Ramaiya K, Feskens EJ. Gestational diabetes mellitus in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review and metaregression on prevalence and risk factors. Trop Med Int Health. 2015; 20(8): 983-1002. PubMed | Google Scholar

  20. Molla M. Systematic Reviews of Prevalence and Associated Factors of Hypertension in Ethiopia: Finding the Evidence. Science Journal of Public Health. 2015; 3(4): 514. Google Scholar

  21. Sama CB, Feteh VF, Tindong M, Tanyi JT, Bihle NM, Angwafo FF. Prevalence of maternal HIV infection and knowledge on mother-to-child transmission of HIV and its prevention among antenatal care attendees in a rural area in northwest Cameroon. PLoS One. 2017; 12(2): e0172102. PubMed | Google Scholar

  22. Turnbull E, Lembalemba MK, Guffey MB, Bolton-Moore C, Mubiana-Mbewe M, Chintu N, Giganti MJ, Nalubamba-Phiri M, Stringer EM, Stringer JS et al. Causes of stillbirth, neonatal death and early childhood death in rural Zambia by verbal autopsy assessments. Trop Med Int Health. 2011; 16(7): 894-901. PubMed | Google Scholar

  23. Kim H-Y, Kasonde P, Mwiya M, Thea DM, Kankasa C, Moses S, Aldrovandi G, Kuhn L. Pregnancy loss and role of infant HIV status on perinatal mortality among HIV-infected women. BMC Pediatrics. 2012; 12: 138. PubMed | Google Scholar

  24. McClure EM, Goldenberg RL. Infection and stillbirth. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2009; 14(4): 182-189. PubMed | Google Scholar

  25. Ferreira J, Borowski D, Czuba B, Cnota W, Wloch A, Sodowski K, Wielgos M, Wegrzyn P. The evolution of fetal presentation during pregnancy: a retrospective, descriptive cross-sectional study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2015; 94(6): 660-663. PubMed | Google Scholar

  26. Kozuki N, Katz J, Khatry SK, Tielsch JM, LeClerq SC, Mullany LC. Risk and burden of adverse intrapartum-related outcomes associated with non-cephalic and multiple birth in rural Nepal: a prospective cohort study. BMJ Open. 2017; 7(4): e013099. PubMed | Google Scholar

  27. Natasha N, Christine LR, Carolyn AC, Emily CO. Diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination for detection of non-cephalic presentation in late pregnancy: cross sectional analytic study. BMJ. 2006; 333(7568): 578-580. PubMed | Google Scholar

  28. Afulani PA. Determinants of stillbirths in Ghana: does quality of antenatal care matter? BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2016; 16(1): 132. PubMed | Google Scholar

  29. Hu IJ, Chen PC, Jeng SF, Hsieh CJ, Liao HF, Su YN, Lin SJ, Hsieh WS. A nationwide survey of risk factors for stillbirth in Taiwan, 2001-2004. Pediatr Neonatol. 2012; 53(2): 105-111. PubMed | Google Scholar

  30. Cheong-See F, Schuit E, Arroyo-Manzano D, Khalil A, Barrett J, Joseph KS, Asztalos E, Hack K, Lewi L, Lim A et al. Prospective risk of stillbirth and neonatal complications in twin pregnancies: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2016; 354: i4353. PubMed | Google Scholar