Article references (42 references )


  1. WHO report. World malaria report. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2016. Accessed December 13, 2016.

  2. Koukouikila-Koussounda F, Ntoumi F. Malaria epidemiological research in the Republic of Congo. Malar J. 2016;15(1):598. PubMed | Google Scholar

  3. Nsimba B, Malonga DA, Mouata AM, Louya F, Kiori J, Malanda M et al. Efficacy of Sulfadoxine/pyriméthamine in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Republic of Congo. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004; 70(2):133-138. PubMed | Google Scholar

  4. Nsimba B, Jafari-Guemouri, Malonga DA, Mouata AM, Kiori J, Louya F et al. Epidemiology of drug-resistant malaria in Republic of Congo: using molecular evidence for monitoring antimalarial drug resistance combined with assessment of antimalarial drug use. Trop Med Int Health. 2005; 10(10):1030-1037. PubMed | Google Scholar

  5. Mayengue PI, Ndounga M, Davy MM, Tandou N, Ntoumi F. In vivo chloroquine resistance and prevalence of the pfcrt codon 76 mutation in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from the Republic of Congo. Acta Trop. 2005; 95(5):219-225. PubMed | Google Scholar

  6. Ndounga M, Mayengue PI, Tahar R, Casimiro PN, Matondo Maya DW, Miakassissa-Mpassi V et al. Efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethemine, amodiaquine, and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-amodiaquine combination for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in urban and surban areas of Brazzaville (Congo). Acta Trop. 2007; 103(3):163-171. PubMed | Google Scholar

  7. Ministry of Health and Population. Politique nationale de lutte contre le paludisme. Ministère de la Santé et de la Population, Brazzaville, République du Congo. 2006. Consulté le 04 Avril 2017.

  8. Ndounga M, Tahar R, Casimiro PN, Loumouamou D, Basco LK. Clinical efficacy of artemether lumefantrine in Congolese children with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Brazzaville. Malar Res Treat. 2012;2012:749479. PubMed | Google Scholar

  9. Ndounga M, Mayengue PI, Casimiro PN, Loumouamou D, Basco LK, Ntoumi F et al. Artesunate-amodiaquine efficacy in Congolese children with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Brazzaville. Malar J. 2013; 12:53. PubMed | Google Scholar

  10. Ndounga M, Mayengue PI, Casimiro PN, Koukouikila-Koussounda F, Bitemo M, Matondo DB et al. Artesunate-amodiaquine versus artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of acute uncomplicated malaria in Congolese children under 10 years old living in suburban area: a randomized study. Malar J. 2015; 14:423. PubMed | Google Scholar

  11. Singana BP, Bogreau H, Matondo BD, Dossou-Yovo LR, Casimiro PN, Mbouka R et al. Malaria burden and anti-malarial drug efficacy in Owando, northern Congo. Malar J. 2016; 15:16. PubMed | Google Scholar

  12. Akhouri RR, Bhattacharyya A, Pattnaik P, Malhotra P, Sharma A. Structural and functional dissection of the adhesive domains of Plasmodium falciparum thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP). Biochem J. 2004; 379(Pt 3):815-822. PubMed | Google Scholar

  13. Heidari A, Keshavarz H, Rokni MB, Jelinek T. Genetic diversity in merozoite surface protein (MSP)-1 and MSP-2 genes of Plasmodium falciparum in a major endemic region of Iran. Korean J Parasitol. 2007; 45(1):59-63. PubMed | Google Scholar

  14. Conway DJ, Cavanagh DR, Tanabe K, Roper C, Mikes ZS, Sakihama N et al. A principal target of human immunity to malaria identified by molecular population genetic and immunological analyses. Nat Med. 2000;6(6):689-92. PubMed | Google Scholar

  15. Ibara-Okabande R, Koukouikila-Koussounda F, Ndounga M, Vouvoungui J, Malonga V, Casimiro PN et al. Reduction of multiplicity of infections but no changes in msp2 genetic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Congolese children after introduction of artemisinin-combination therapy. Malar J. 2012;11:410. Google Scholar

  16. Ntoumi F, Ngoundou-Landji J, Lekoulou F, Luty A, Deloron P, Ringwarld P. Site-base study on polymorphism of Plasmodium falciparum MSP-1 et MSP-2 genes in isolates from two villages in Central Africa. Parasitologia. 2000;42(3-4):197-203. Google Scholar

  17. Mayengue PI, Ndounga M, Malonga FV, Bitemo M, Ntoumi F. Genetic polymorphism of mérozoïte surface protein-1 and merozoite surface protein-2 in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. Malar J. 2011; 10:276. PubMed | Google Scholar

  18. Mwingira F, Nkwengulila G, Schoepflin S, Sumari D, Hans-Peter Beck, Snounou G et al. Plasmodium falciparum msp1, msp2 and glurp allele frequency and diversity in sub-Saharan Africa. Malar J. 2011;10:79. PubMed | Google Scholar

  19. Etoka-Beka MK, Ntoumi F, Kombo M, Deibert J, Poulain P, Vouvoungui C et al. Plasmodium falciparum infection in febrile Congolese children: prevalence of clinical malaria 10 years after introduction of artemisinin-combination therapies. Trop Med Int Health. 2016;21(12):1496-1503. PubMed | Google Scholar

  20. Ntoumi F, Vouvoungui JC, Ibara R, Landry M, Sidibé A. Malaria burden and case management in the Republic of Congo: limited use and application of rapid diagnostic tests results. BMC Public Health. 2013; 13:135. PubMed | Google Scholar

  21. World Health Organization. Parasitologie médicale: techniques de base pour le laboratoire. Genève, OMS. 1993

  22. Ekala MT, Jouin H, Lekoulou F, Issifou S, Mercereau-Puijalon O, Ntoumi F. Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1): genotyping and humoral responses to allele-specific variants. Acta trop. 2002;81(1):33-46. Google Scholar

  23. Mayengue PI, Luty AJ, Rogier C, Baragatti M, Kremsner PG, Ntoumi F. The multiplicity of Plasmodium falciparum infections is associated with acquired immunity to asexual blood stage antigens. Microbes Infect. 2009;11(1):108-114. PubMed | Google Scholar

  24. Mohd Abd Razak MR, Sastu UR, Norahmad NA, Abdul-Karim A, Muhammed A, Muniandy PK et al. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum populations in malaria declining areas of Sabah, East Malaysia. PLos One. 2016;11(3):e0152415. PubMed | Google Scholar

  25. Mohammed H, Mindaye T, Belayneh M, Kassa M, Assefa A, Tadesse M et al. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum isolates based on MSP-1 and MSP-2 genes from Kolla-Shele area, Arbaminch Zuria District, southwest Ethiopia. Malar J. 2015; 14:73. PubMed | Google Scholar

  26. Felger I, Tavul L, Kabintik S, Marshall V, Genton B, Alpers M et al. Plasmodium falciparum: extensive polymorphism in merozoite surface antigen 2 alleles in an area with endemic malaria in Papua New Guinea. Exp Parasitol. 1994;79(2):106-116. PubMed | Google Scholar

  27. Koukouikila-Koussounda F, Malonga V, Mayengue PI, Ndounga M, Vouvoungui CJ, Ntoumi F. Genetic polymorphism of merozoite surface protein 2 and prevalence of K76T pfcrt mutation in Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Congolese children with asymptomatic infections. Malar J. 2012; 11:105. PubMed | Google Scholar

  28. Anderson TJ, Su XZ, Roddam A, Day PK. Complex mutations in a high proportion of microsatellite loci from the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Ecol. 2000; 9(10):1599-1608. PubMed | Google Scholar

  29. Durand P, Michalakis Y, Cestier S, Oury B, Leclerc MC, Tibayrenc M et al. Significant linkage disequilibrium and high genetic diversity in a population of Plasmodium falciparum from an area (Republic of the Congo) highly endemic for malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;68(3):345-349. PubMed | Google Scholar

  30. Zwetyenga J, Rogier C, Tall A, Fontenille D, Snounou G, Trape JF et al. No influence of age on infection complexity allelic distribution in Plasmodium falciparum infection in Ndiop, a Senegales village with seasonal, mesoendemic malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1998;59(5):726-35. PubMed | Google Scholar

  31. Sallenave-Sales S, Daubersies P, Mercereau-Puijalon O, Rahimalala L, Contamin H, Druilhe P et al. Plasmodium falciparum: a comparative analysis of the genetic diversity in malaria mesoendemic areas of Brazil and Madagascar. Parasitol Res. 2000;86(8):692-698. PubMed | Google Scholar

  32. Kolawole OM, Mokuolu OA, Olukosi YA, Oloyede TO. Population genomics diversity of Plasmodium falciparum in malaria patients attending Okelele Health Centre, Okelele, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Afr Health Sci. 2016;16(3):704-711. PubMed | Google Scholar

  33. Yavo W, Konaté A, Mawili-Mboumba DP, Kassi KF, Mbuyi TML, Angora EK et al. Genetic Polymorphism of msp1 and msp2 in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Côte d’Ivoire versus Gabon. J Parasitol Res. 2016; 2016:3074803. PubMed | Google Scholar

  34. Aubouy A, Migot-Nabias F, Deloron P. Polymorphism in two merozoite surface proteins of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Gabon. Malar J. 2003; 2:12. PubMed | Google Scholar

  35. Kobbe R, Neuhoff R, Marks F, Adjei S, Langefeld I, von Reden C et al. Seasonal variation and higly multiplicity of first Plasmodium falciparum infections in children from a holoendemic area in Ghana, West Africa. Trop Med Int Health. 2006;11(5):613-619. Google Scholar

  36. Ogouyèmi-Hounto A, Gazard DK, Ndam N, Topanou E, Garba O, Elegbe P et al. Genetic polymorphism of merozoite surface protein-1 and merozoite surface protein-2 in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from children in South of Benin. Parasite. 2013;20:37. PubMed | Google Scholar

  37. Smith T, Felger I, Beck HP, Tanner M. Consequences of multiple infection with Plasmodium falciparum in an area of high endemicity. Parassitologia. 1999;41(1-3):247-250. PubMed | Google Scholar

  38. Bruce MC, Macheso A, McConnachie A, Molyneux ME. Comparative population structure of Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium falciparum under different transmission settings in Malawi. Malar J. 2011;10:38. PubMed | Google Scholar

  39. Nabet C, Doumbo S, Jeddi F, Konaté S, Manciulli T, Fofana B et al. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum in human malaria cases in Mali. Malar J. 2016;15:353. PubMed | Google Scholar

  40. Snounou G, Zhu X, Siripoon N, Jarra W, Thaithong S, Brown KN et al. Biased distribution of mspl and msp2 allelic variants in Plasmodium falciparum populations in Thailand. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1999;93(4):369-374. PubMed | Google Scholar

  41. Hamid MAM, Elamin AF, Albsheer MM, Abdalla AA, Mahgoub NS, Mustafa SO et al. Multiplicity of infection and genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from patients with uncomplicated and severe malaria in Gezira State, Sudan. Parasit Vectors. 2016;9(1):362. Google Scholar

  42. Kidima W, Nkwengulila G. Plasmodium falciparum msp2 Genotypes and multiplicity of infections among children under five years with uncomplicated Malaria in Kibaha, Tanzania. J Parasitol Res. 2015;2015:721201. PubMed | Google Scholar