Article references (28 references )


  1. Ogah OS, Rayner BL. Recent advances in hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa. Heart. 2013; 99(19): 1390-1397. PubMed | Google Scholar

  2. Guwatudde D, Nankya-Mutyoba J, Kalyesubula R, Laurence C, Adebamowo C, Ajayi I et al. The burden of hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa: a four-country cross sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2015 Dec 5; 15: 1211. PubMed | Google Scholar

  3. Twagirumuzika M, De Bacquer D, Kips J, de Backer G, Stichele R, Van Bortal L. Current and projected prevalence of arterial hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa by sex, age and habitat: an estimate from population studies. J Hypertens. 2011; 29(7): 1243-1252. PubMed | Google Scholar

  4. Opie L, Seedat Y. Hypertension in sub-Saharan African populations. Circulation. 2005; 112(23): 3562-3568. PubMed | Google Scholar

  5. Mulenga D, Siziya S, Rudatsikira E, Mukonka VM, Babaniyi O, Songolo P et al. District specific correlates for hypertension in Kaoma and Kasama rural districts of Zambia. Rural Remote Health. 2013; 13(3): 2345. PubMed | Google Scholar

  6. Kavishe B, Biraro S, Baisley K, Vanobberghen F, Kapiga S, Munderi P et al. High prevalence of hypertension and of risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs): a population based cross-sectional survey of NCDS and HIV infection in Northwestern Tanzania and Southern Uganda. BMC Med. 2015; 13: 126. PubMed | Google Scholar

  7. Damasceno A, Azevedo A, Silva-Matos C, Prista A, Diogo D, Lunet N. Hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control in Mozambique: Urban/rural gap during epidemiological transition. Hypertension. 2009; 54(1): 77-83. PubMed | Google Scholar

  8. Fezeu L, Kengne A, Balkau B, Awah P, Mbanya J. Ten-year change in blood pressure levels and prevalence of hypertension in urban and rural Cameroon. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2010; 64(4): 360-365. PubMed | Google Scholar

  9. van de Vijver S, Akinyi H, Oti S, Olajide A, Agyemang C, Aboderin I et al. Status report on hypertension in Africa: consultative review for the 6th session of the African Union Conference of Ministers of Health on NCD's. Pan Afr Med J. 2013; 16; 38. PubMed | Google Scholar

  10. Commodore-Mensah Y, Samuel L, Dennison-Himmelfarb C, Agyemang C. Hypertension and overweight/obesity in Ghanaians and Nigerians living in West Africa and industrialized countries: a systematic review. J Hypertens. 2014; 32(3): 464-472. PubMed | Google Scholar

  11. Okpechi I, Chukwuonye I, Tiffin, N, Madukwe O, Onyeonoro U, Umeizudike T et al. Blood pressure gradients and cardiovascular risk factors in urban and rural populations in Abia State South Eastern Nigeria using the WHO STEPwise approach. PLoS ONE. 2013; 8(9): 1-8. PubMed | Google Scholar

  12. Oladapo O, Falase A, Salako L, Sodiq O, Shoyinka K, Adedapo K. A prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors among a rural Yoruba south-western Nigerian population: a population-based survey. Cardiovasc J Afr. 2010; 21(1): 26-31. PubMed | Google Scholar

  13. Oelke N, Rush KL, Goma F, Barker J, Marck P, Pedersen C. Understanding perceptions and practices for Zambian adults in Western Province at risk for hypertension: an exploratory descriptive study. Glob J Health Sci. 2016; 8(2): 248-259. PubMed

  14. Yan LD, Chi BH, Sindano N, Bosomprah S, Stringer JSA, Chilengi R. Prevalence of hypertension and its treatment among adults presenting to primary health clinics in rural Zambia: analysis of an observational database. BMC Public Health. 2015; 15: 933. PubMed | Google Scholar

  15. Msyamboza K, Ngwira B, Dzowela T, Mvula C, Kathyola D, Harries A et al. The burden of selected chronic non-communicable diseases and their risk factors in Malawi: Nationwide STEPS survey. PLoS ONE. 2011; 6(5): 1-6. PubMed | Google Scholar

  16. Godfrey R, Julien M. Urbanisation and health. Clin Med. 2005; 5(2): 137-141. PubMed | Google Scholar

  17. VanVoorhis CRW, Morgan BL. Understanding Power and Rules of Thumb for Determining Sample Sizes. Tut Quant Methods Psyc. 2007; 3(2): 43-50. Google Scholar

  18. World Health Organization. The WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance (STEPS). Accessed 01 December 2016.

  19. Weber MA, Schiffrin EL, White WB, Mann S, Lindholm LH, Kenerson JG, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of hypertension in the community. J Clin Hypertens. 2014; 16(1): 14-26. PubMed | Google Scholar

  20. Goma FM, Nzala SH, Babaniyi O, Songolo P, Zyaambo C, Rudatsikira E, et al. Prevalence of hypertension and its correlates in Lusaka urban district of Zambia: a population based survey. Int Arch Med. 2011; 4: 34. PubMed | Google Scholar

  21. World Health Organization. BMI classification. Accessed 15 June 2017.

  22. Neupane S, Prakash KC, Doku D. Overweight and obesity among women: Analysis of demographic and health survey data from 32 Sub-Saharan African Countries. BMC Public Health. 2016; 16: 30. PubMed | Google Scholar

  23. Choukem S, Kengne A, Nguefack M, Mboue-Djieka Y, Nebongo D, Guimezap JT et al. Four-year trends in adiposity and its association with hypertension in serial groups of young adult university students in urban Cameroon: a time-series study. BMC Public Health. 2017; 17(1): 499. PubMed | Google Scholar

  24. Hulzebosch A, van de Vijver S, Oti S, Egondi T, Kyobutungi C. Profile of people with hypertension in Nairobi's slums: a descriptive study. Global Health. 2015; 11: 26. PubMed | Google Scholar

  25. Murphy G, Asiki G, Ekoru K, Nsubuga R, Nakiyingi-Miiro J, Young E et al. Sociodemographic distribution of non-communicable disease risk factors in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional study. Int J Epidemiol. 2013; 42(6): 1740-1753. PubMed | Google Scholar

  26. de Ramirez SS, Enquobahrie DA, Nyadzi G, Mjungu D, Magombo F, Ramirez M, et al. Prevalence and correlates of hypertension: a cross-sectional study among rural population in sub-Saharan Africa. J Hum Hypertens. 2010; 24(12): 786-795. PubMed | Google Scholar

  27. Campbell N, Bovet P, Schutte A, Lemogoum D, Nkwescheu A. High blood pressure in sub-Saharan Africa: Why prevention, detection, and control are urgent and important. J Clin Hypertens. 2015; 17(9): 663-667. PubMed | Google Scholar

  28. Mukanu M, Zulu J, Mweemba C, Mutale W. Responding to non-communicable diseases in Zambia: a policy analysis. Health Res Policy and Syst. 2017; 15(1): 34. PubMed | Google Scholar