Article references (49 references )


  1. Keil A, Daniels JL, Forssen U. Parental autoimmune diseases associated with autism spectrum disorders in offspring. Epidemiol. 2010; 21(6): 805-808. PubMed | Google Scholar

  2. Tanne JH. Maternal obesity and diabetes are linked to children's autism and similar disorders. BMJ. 2012; 344: e2768. PubMed | Google Scholar

  3. Atladottir HO, Henriksen TB, Schendel DE. Autism after infection, febrile episodes and antibiotic use during pregnancy: an exploratory study. Pediatrics. 2012; 130(6): e1447-e1454. PubMed | Google Scholar

  4. Parker W, Perkins SE, Harker M. A prescription for clinical immunology: the pills are available and ready for testing. Curr Med Res Opin. 2012; 28(7): 1193-1202. PubMed | Google Scholar

  5. Brenner SL, Jones JP, Rutanen-Whaley RH. Evolutionary mismatch and chronic psychological stress. J Evol Med. 2015; 3: 235885. Google Scholar

  6. Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2007; 357(3): 266-281. PubMed | Google Scholar

  7. Bilbo SD, Wray GA, Perkins SE, Sarah EP. Reconstitution of the human biome as the most reasonable solution for epidemics of allergic and autoimmune diseases. Med Hypotheses. 2011; 77(4): 494-504. PubMed | Google Scholar

  8. Parker W, Chi Dang H, Staci B, Zoie EH, Lauren G, Rasika R, Shu SL, Martha RH, Cynthia DN. The role of oxidative stress, inflammation and acetaminophen exposure from birth to early childhood in the induction of autism. J Intern Med Res. 2017; 45(2): 407-438. PubMed | Google Scholar

  9. Kitara DL, Anywar AD, Mwaka AD, Uwonda G, Abwang B, Kigonya E. Nodding syndrome in Northern Uganda: a probable metabolic disorder. Br J Med Med Res. 2013; 3(4): 2054-2068. Google Scholar

  10. Spencer PS, Mazumder R, Valerie SP, Lasarev MR, Stadnik RC, King P, Kabahenda M, Kitara DL, Stadler D, McArdle B, Tumwine JK. other Members of the Oregon-Uganda Nodding Syndrome Research Team: environmental, dietary and case-control study of Nodding Syndrome in Uganda: a post-measles brain disorder triggered by malnutrition. J Neurol Sci. 2016; 369: 191-203. PubMed | Google Scholar

  11. Spencer PS, Kitara DL, Gazda SK, Winkler AS. Nodding syndrome: 2015 International Conference Report and Gulu Accord. eNeurologicalSci. 2015; 3: 80-83. PubMed | Google Scholar

  12. Anywar Arony Denis, Angwech Collines, Makumbi Edward Frederick, Suzanne Gazda, Kitara David Lagoro. Is there a line between internal displacement; environmental and Dietary factors in the onset of nodding syndrome in northern Uganda: a clinical observational study design. World J Pharmaceutical and Med Res. 2017; 3(9): 34-48. Google Scholar

  13. David Kitara Lagoro, Denis Anywar Arony. Letter, Nodding Syndrome (NS) and Onchocerca Volvulus (OV). Pan Afri Med J. 2017; 28: 1. PubMed | Google Scholar

  14. Idro R, Opar B, Wamala J, Abbo C, Onzivua S, Mwaka DA, Kakooza-Mwesige A, Mbonye A, Aceng JR. Is nodding syndrome an Onchocerca volvulus-induced neuroinflammatory disorder: Uganda's story of research in understanding the disease. Int J Infect Dis. 2016; 45: 112-117. PubMed | Google Scholar

  15. Tumwine JK, Vandemaele K, Chungong S, Richer M, Anker M, Ayana Y. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of nodding syndrome in Mundri County, South Sudan. Afr Health Sci. 2012; 12(3): 242-248. PubMed | Google Scholar

  16. Landis JL, Palmer VS, Spencer PS. Nodding syndrome in Kitgum District, Uganda: association with conflict and internal displacement. BMJ Open. 2014; 4(11): e006195. PubMed | Google Scholar

  17. Germaine LD. Biotinidase deficiency clinical presentations. Drugs and Diseases, Paediatrics: Genetics and Metabolic Diseases. 2016. Google Scholar

  18. Hannigan S. Inherited Metabolic Conditions: a guide to 100 conditions. Radcliffe Publishing Ltd. 2007. Google Scholar

  19. Wolf B. Clinical issues and frequent questions about biotinidase deficiency. Mol Genet Metab. 2010; 100(1): 6-13. PubMed | Google Scholar

  20. Wolf B.The neurology of biotinidase deficiency. Mol Genet Metab. 2011; 104(1-2): 27-34. PubMed | Google Scholar

  21. Otunnu O. Causes and Consequences of the War in Acholiland, Accessed January 5, 2016.

  22. Dowell SF, Sejvar JJ, Riek L, Vandemaele KA, Lamunu M, Kuesel AC, Schmutzhard E, Matuja W, Bunga S, Foltz J, Nutman TB, Winkler AS, Mbonye AK. Nodding syndrome. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013; 19(9): 1374-84. PubMed | Google Scholar

  23. Kitara DL, Mwaka AD, Kigonya E. High Anion Gap metabolic Acidosis in Children with Nodding Syndrome in Northern Uganda: a case series. Br J Med Med Res. 2014; 4(6): 1301-1314. Google Scholar

  24. Musisi S, Akena D. Neuropsychiatric perspectives on nodding syndrome in northern Uganda: a case series study and review of the literature. Afr Health Sci. 2013; 13(2): 205-18. PubMed | Google Scholar

  25. MacFabe DF. Short-chain fatty acid fermentation products of the gut microbiome: implications in autism spectrum disorders. Microb Ecol Health Dis. 2012; 23: 103402/mehdv23i019260. PubMed | Google Scholar

  26. MacFabe DF, Cain NE, Boon F, Ossenkopp KP, Cain DP. Effects of the enteric bacterial metabolic product propionic acid on object-directed behavior, social behavior, cognition, and neuro-inflammation in adolescent rats: relevance to autism spectrum disorder. Behav Brain Res. 2011; 217(1): 47-54. PubMed | Google Scholar

  27. MacFabe DF, Cain DP, Rodriguez-Capote K, Franklin AE, Hoffman JE, Boon F, Taylor AR, Kavaliers M, Ossenkopp KP. Neurobiological effects of intraventricular propionic acid in rats: possible role of short chain fatty acids on the pathogenesis and characteristics of autism spectrum disorders. Behav Brain Res. 2007; 176(1): 149-69. PubMed | Google Scholar

  28. Yap IK, Angley M, Veselkov KA, Holmes E, Lindon JC, Nicholson JK. Urinary metabolic phenotyping differentiates children with autism from their unaffect¬ed siblings and age-matched controls. J Proteome Res. 2010; 9(6): 2996-3004. PubMed | Google Scholar

  29. Nicholson JK, Holmes E, Kinross. Host-gut microbiota metabolic interactions. Science. 2012; 336(6086): 1262-7. PubMed | Google Scholar

  30. Thomas RH, Meeking MM, Mepham JR. The enteric bacterial metabolite propionic acid alters brain and plasma phospholipid molecular species: further. Development of a rodent model of autism spectrum disorders. J Neuroinflammation. 2012; 9: 153. PubMed | Google Scholar

  31. Barnevik-Olsson M, Gillberg C, Fernell E. Prevalence of autism in children of Somali origin living in Stockholm: brief report of an at-risk population. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2010; 52(12): 1167-8. PubMed | Google Scholar

  32. Forsythe P, Sudo N, Dinan T, Taylor VH, Bienenstock J. Mood and gut feelings. Brain Behav Immun. 2010; 24(1): 9-16. PubMed | Google Scholar

  33. Vargas DL, Nascimbene C, Krishnan C, Zimmerman AW, Pardo CA. Neuroglial activation and neuroinflammation in the brain of patients with autism. Ann Neurol. 2005; 57(1): 67-81. PubMed | Google Scholar

  34. Pardo CA, Eberhart CG. The neurobiology of autism. Brain Pathol. 2007; 17(4): 434-47. PubMed | Google Scholar

  35. Chauhan A, Chauhan V. Oxidative stress in autism. Pathophysiology. 2006; 13(3): 171-181. PubMed | Google Scholar

  36. Kohman RA, Rhodes JS. Neurogenesis, inflammation and behavior. Brain Behav Immun. 2013; 27(1): 22-32. PubMed | Google Scholar

  37. Brass EP, Beyerinck RA. Effects of propionate and carnitine on the hepatic oxidation of short and medium chain-length fatty acids. J Biochem. 1988; 250(3): 819-825. PubMed | Google Scholar

  38. Frye RE. Biomarkers of abnormal energy metabolism in children with autism spectrum disorder. N A J Med Sci. 2012; 5(3): 141-7. Google Scholar

  39. Frye RE, Melnyk S, MacFabe DS. Unique acyl-carnitine profiles are potential bio-markers for acquired mitochondrial disease in autism spectrum disorder. Transl Psychiatry. 2013; 3: e220. PubMed | Google Scholar

  40. Frye RE, Rossignol DA. Mitochondrial dysfunction can connect the diverse medical symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatr Res. 2011 May; 69(5 Pt 2): 41R-7R. PubMed | Google Scholar

  41. Rossignol DA, Frye RE. Mitochondrial dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mol Psychiatry. 2012 Mar; 17(3): 290-314. PubMed | Google Scholar

  42. El-Ansary AK, Ben BA, Kotb M. Etiology of autistic features: the persisting neurotoxic effects of propionic acid. J Neuroinflammation. 2012; 9: 74. PubMed | Google Scholar

  43. Wang L, Christophersen CT, Sorich MJ, Gerber JP, Angley MT, Conlon MA. Elevated fecal short chain fatty acid and ammonia concentrations in children with autism spectrum disorder. Dig Dis Sci. 2012; 57(8): 2096-102. PubMed | Google Scholar

  44. Williams BL, Hornig M, Buie T. Impaired carbohydrate digestion and trans¬port and mucosal dysbiosis in the intestines of children with autism and gastro¬intestinal disturbances. PLoS One. 2011; 6(9): e24585. Google Scholar

  45. Cryan JF, Dinan TG. Mind-altering microorganisms: the impact of the gut micro¬biota on brain and behaviour. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2012; 13(10): 701-12. PubMed | Google Scholar

  46. Suren P, Bakken IJ, Aase H, ADHD, ep White RA, Bjornholt JV, Baird DD. Autism spectrum disorder, Novel developmental analyses identify longitudinal patterns of early gut microbiota that affect infant growth. PLoS Comput Biol. 2013; 9: e1003042. Google Scholar

  47. Suren P, Bakken IJ, Aase H. Autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, epilepsy and cerebral palsy in Norwegian children. Pediatrics. 2012; 130(1): e152-8. PubMed | Google Scholar

  48. Petrof EO, Claud EC, Gloor GB, Allen-Vercoe E. Microbial ecosystems therapeu¬tics: a new paradigm in medicine. Benef Microbes. 2013; 4(1): 53-65. PubMed | Google Scholar

  49. Diamond J. Guns, germs and steel, New York, NY: WW. Norton & Company, Inc. 1997. Google Scholar