Article references (27 references )

  1. Sadoul JL. L'ophtalmopathie thyro´dienne Ó l'heure de l'European Group On Graves Orbitopathy (EUGOGO). Presse MÚdicale. 2011; 40(12): 1163-73. Google Scholar

  2. Asman P. Ophthalmological evaluation in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2003; 81(5): 437-48. PubMed | Google Scholar

  3. Dolman PJ. Evaluating Graves' orbitopathy. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 26(3): 229-48. PubMed | Google Scholar

  4. Curr˛ N, Covelli D, Vannucchi G et al. Therapeutic Outcomes of High-Dose Intravenous Steroids in the Treatment of Dysthyroid Optic Neuropathy. Thyroid. 2014; 24(5): 897-905. PubMed | Google Scholar

  5. McKeag D, Lane C, Lazarus JH et al. Clinical features of dysthyroid optic neuropathy: a European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy (EUGOGO) survey. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007; 91(4): 455-8. PubMed | Google Scholar

  6. Wakelkamp IMMJ, Baldeschi L, Saeed P et al. Surgical or medical decompression as a first-line treatment of optic neuropathy in Graves' ophthalmopathy: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005; 63(3): 323-8 PubMed | Google Scholar

  7. Al-Bakri M, Rasmussen AK, Thomsen C et al. Orbital Volumetry in Graves' Orbitopathy: muscle and Fat Involvement in relation to Dysthyroid Optic Neuropathy. ISRN Ophthalmol. 2014; 2014: 435276. PubMed | Google Scholar

  8. Barrett L, Glatt HJ, Burde RM et al. Optic nerve dysfunction in thyroid eye disease: CT. Radiology. 1988; 167(2): 503-7. PubMed | Google Scholar

  9. Anderson RL, Tweeten JP, Patrinely JR et al. Dysthyroid optic neuropathy without extraocular muscle involvement. Ophthalmic Surg. 1989; 20(8): 568-74. PubMed | Google Scholar

  10. Chan LL, Tan H-E, Fook-Chong S et al. Graves ophthalmopathy: the bony orbit in optic neuropathy, its apical angular capacity and impact on prediction of risk. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2009; 30(3): 597-602. PubMed | Google Scholar

  11. Bartalena L, Baldeschi L, Boboridis K et al. The 2016 European Thyroid Association/European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy Guidelines for the Management of Graves' Orbitopathy. Eur Thyroid J. 2016; 5(1): 9-26. PubMed | Google Scholar

  12. Kahaly GJ, Pitz S, Hommel G et al. Randomized, single blind trial of intravenous versus oral steroid monotherapy in Graves' orbitopathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005; 90(9): 5234-40. PubMed | Google Scholar

  13. Marcocci C, Marin˛ M. Treatment of mild, moderate-to-severe and very severe Graves' orbitopathy. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 26(3): 325-37. PubMed | Google Scholar

  14. Zang S, Ponto KA, Kahaly GJ. Clinical review: intravenous glucocorticoids for Graves' orbitopathy: efficacy and morbidity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96(2): 320-32. PubMed | Google Scholar

  15. Eckstein A, Schittkowski M, Esser J. Surgical treatment of Graves' ophthalmopathy. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 26(3): 339-58. PubMed | Google Scholar

  16. Ben Simon GJ, Wang L, McCann JD et al. Primary-gaze diplopia in patients with thyroid-related orbitopathy undergoing deep lateral orbital decompression with intraconal fat debulking: a retrospective analysis of treatment outcome. Thyroid Off J Am Thyroid Assoc. 2004; 14(5): 379-83. PubMed | Google Scholar

  17. Uddin JM, Davies PD. Treatment of upper eyelid retraction associated with thyroid eye disease with subconjunctival botulinum toxin injection. Ophthalmology. 2002; 109(6): 1183-7. PubMed | Google Scholar

  18. Scott AB. Injection treatment of endocrine orbital myopathy. Doc Ophthalmol Adv Ophthalmol. 1984; 58(1): 141-5. PubMed | Google Scholar

  19. Costa PG, Saraiva FP, Pereira IC et al. Comparative study of Botox injection treatment for upper eyelid retraction with 6-month follow-up in patients with thyroid eye disease in the congestive or fibrotic stage. Eye Lond Engl. 2009; 23(4): 767-73. PubMed | Google Scholar

  20. Mourits MP, Sasim IV. A single technique to correct various degrees of upper lid retraction in patients with Graves' orbitopathy. Br J Ophthalmol. 1999; 83(1): 81-4. PubMed | Google Scholar

  21. Lucarelli MJ, Shore JW. Management of thyroid optic neuropathy. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 1996; 36(1): 179-93. PubMed | Google Scholar

  22. Guy JR, Fagien S, Donovan JP et al. Methylprednisolone Pulse Therapy in Severe Dysthyroid Optic Neuropathy. Ophthalmology. 1989; 96(7): 1048-53. PubMed | Google Scholar

  23. Panzo GJ, Tomsak RL. A Retrospective Review of 26 Cases of Dysthyroid Optic Neuropathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1983; 96(2): 190-4. PubMed | Google Scholar

  24. Hart RH, Kendall-Taylor P, Crombie A et al. Early response to intravenous glucocorticoids for severe thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy predicts treatment outcome. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther Off J Assoc Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2005; 21(4): 328-36. PubMed | Google Scholar

  25. Kahaly G, Schrezenmeir J, Krause U et al. Ciclosporin and prednisone v, prednisone in treatment of Graves' ophthalmopathy: a controlled, randomized and prospective study. Eur J Clin Invest. 1986; 16(5): 415-22. PubMed | Google Scholar

  26. Prummel MF, Mourits MP, Berghout A et al. Prednisone and cyclosporine in the treatment of severe Graves'ophthalmopathy. N Engl J Med. 1989; 321(20): 1353-9. PubMed | Google Scholar

  27. Heinz C, Eckstein A, Steuhl K-P et al. Amniotic membrane transplantation for reconstruction of corneal ulcer in graves ophthalmopathy. Cornea. 2004; 23(5): 524-6. PubMed | Google Scholar