Article abstract


Introduction: in sub-Saharan Africa, epilepsy is common and mainly concerns children before the age of 15 years. The data on childhood epilepsy is parcel, but a high prevalence of non-genetic epilepsy is frequently reported. EEG, TDM and MRI devices are rare. The aim of this work was to study the etiological aspects of non - genetic epilepsy of the child and adolescent, newly diagnosed in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

 

Methods: this was a cross-sectional, descriptive, multicentric study, from 01/01/2016 to 31/12/2016, involving patients aged 0 to 18 years old, epileptic, newly diagnosed, in the city of Ouagadougou. Each patient included in the study was to have had an EEG and brain CT scan and/or brain MRI and to gather the anamnestic and electro clinical arguments for non-genetic epilepsy. Sociodemographic, clinical, EEG and neuroradiological data were analyzed. An univariate analysis was used to determine the electro-clinical and neuro-radiological characteristics associated with epilepsies of structural causes.

 

Results: in all 115 patients were collected, with an average age of onset of epilepsy of 8.2 years, a male predominance with a sex ratio to 1.67. Risk factors of epilepsy was present in 74.8%; They were dominated by perinatal events in 79.1%. Focal seizures, daily frequency of these seizures and focal epilepsy, were predominant, respectively in 53%, 58% and 60.9% of cases. Brain scan and Brain MRI where performed in 90.4% and 9.6% of patients, respectively. The brain sequelaes of perinatal adverse events, the sequelae of central nervous system infections, and the sequelae of cranial and brain trauma, with 34.8%, 14.8%, and 5.2% respectively, were the main causes of non- genetic epilepsies of the child and adolescent. No cause was identified in 37.4% of cases.

 

Conclusion: the improvement of policies in the field of maternal and child health and the generalization of the control of infectious and parasitic diseases, including malaria, may contribute to the reduction of non-genetic epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa.