Article abstract


HIV and HTLV (Human T-ymphotropic Virus) are the only known retroviruses responsible for causing infection in humans. HTLV-1 and HIV-1 are frequent co-pathogens, however, despite its potential for accelerated progression of HIV disease and the risk of developing adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia (ATLL), HTLV-1 is seldom considered for investigation in the HIV-1 positive individual. Severe/refractory hypercalcaemia, unresponsive to conventional calcium lowering therapy may complicate up to 70% of cases of ATLL. In addition, HTLV-1 and ATLL have both been associated with a rise in dysfunctional CD4 lymphocytes, thereby conveying a false sense of immune competence in the HIV-1 infected individual.